|Truth, philosophy: a property of sentences, not a property of utterances because utterances are events. See also truth conditions, truth definition, truth functions, truth predicate, truth table, truth theory, truth value, correspondence theory, coherence theory.
The most diverse approaches claim to define or explain truth, or to assert their fundamental indefinability.
A. Linguistic-oriented theories presuppose either a match of statements with extracts of the world or a consistency with other statements. See also truth theory, truth definition, theory of meaning, correspondence theory, coherence theory, facts, circumstances, paradoxes, semantics, deflationism, disquotationalism, criteria, evidence.
B. Action-oriented truth theories take a future realization of states as the standard, which should be reconciled with an aspired ideal. See also reality, correctness, pragmatism, idealization, ideas.
C. Truth-oriented theories of art attribute qualities to works of art under certain circumstances which reveal the future realization of ideal assumed social conditions. See also emphatic truth, fiction, art, works of art.
_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Alfred Jules Ayer on Truth - Dictionary of Arguments
Truth/Circle/Ayer: true statements are determined by relation to facts - facts determined with true statements - Circle: broken by actions and observations - Ayer separates between T def and truth criterion.
VsCorrespondence Theory: confuses a method for interpreting the symbols with a truth criterion.
Truth/AyerVsTarski: should not be property of sentences but of propositions (statements expressed by sentences) - E.g. time ratio is relevant.
Truth/Tarski/Ayer: analysis of use (use, no criterion of truth).
- - -
Truth/Ayer: adds nothing - Truth/Falsehood: their function is to replace negation and assertion signs.
They themselves are not real concepts._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alfred J. Ayer
"Truth" in: The Concept of a Person and other Essays, London 1963
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977
Alfred Jules Ayer
Language, Truth and Logic, London 1936
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke,
Alfred Jules Ayer
"The Criterion of Truth", Analysis 3 (1935), pp. 28-32
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994