Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Ethics, philosophy: ethics is concerned with the evaluation and justification of actions and ultimately a justification of morality. See also good, values, norms, actions, deontology, deontic logic, consequentialism, morals, motives, reasons, action theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Aristotle on Ethics - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 317
Ethics/Aristotle/Gadamer: [Aristotle is concerned with] the correct measurement of the role that reason has to play in moral action. [This is the problem of the relationship between the general and the particular.]
Gadamer: (...) what interests us here [is] that it is a matter of reason and of knowledge that are not detached from an existence that has become, but are determined by it and are decisive for it.
AristotleVsSocrates/AristotleVsPlato: Through his restriction of the Socratic-Platonic
"Intellectualism" in the question of the good, Aristotle, as is well known, becomes the founder of ethics as a discipline independent of metaphysics. By criticizing the Platonic idea of the good as an empty generality, he poses the question of the human good to it, the good for human action.
In the direction of this criticism, the equation of virtue and knowledge, of "arete" and "logos" as it underlies the Socratic-Platonic doctrine of virtue proves to be an exaggeration. Aristotle brings them back to the right measure by showing the orexis as the supporting element of man's moral knowledge, the "striving" and its shaping into a fixed attitude (hexis). The concept of ethics already bears in its name the reference to this Aristotelian foundation of the "arete" in practice and "ethos". >Humans/Aristotle
Gadamer I 318
(...) Aristotle [confronts] "ethos" with "physis" as an area in which there is no irregularity, but which does not know the regularity of nature, but rather the changeability and limited regularity of human statutes and human behaviour. >Knowledge/Aristotle, >Humans/Aristotle.
Gadamer I 319
Knowledge/Aristotle: remains Socratic in so far as he records knowledge as an essential moment of moral being (...).

1. Eth. Nic. A4. (But cf. my vol. 7 of Ges. Werke proposed academic paper: „Die Idee des Guten zwischen Plato und Aristoteles“).
- - -
Adorno XIII 226
Mesotes/Ethics/Aristotle/Adorno: the ideal of the middle is an all-Greek ideal. One finds it formulated in Aristotle's theory of virtue, for example the bravery as the middle between cowardice and foolishness. Generally formulated this is in the category of mesotes, the middle measure.
As an ethical ideal, it reappears in apathia, the state of apathy, in which one is independent of pain, and no longer knows any affects.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

Th. W. Adorno
Max Horkheimer
Dialektik der Aufklärung Frankfurt 1978

Theodor W. Adorno
Negative Dialektik Frankfurt/M. 2000

Theodor W. Adorno
Ästhetische Theorie Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Minima Moralia Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophie der neuen Musik Frankfurt/M. 1995

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften, Band 5: Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistheorie. Drei Studien zu Hegel Frankfurt/M. 1071

Theodor W. Adorno
Noten zur Literatur (I - IV) Frankfurt/M. 2002

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 2: Kierkegaard. Konstruktion des Ästhetischen Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 8: Soziologische Schriften I Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Über Walter Benjamin Frankfurt/M. 1990

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 1 Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 2 Frankfurt/M. 1974

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2024-04-18
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