Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Categories: categories are basic concepts for classifying the objects of a knowledge domain into different groups or hierarchies. In philosophy, the category systems of different authors can differ considerably. Concepts which are not suitable for classifying are transcendentals, e.g. the concept of similarity. However, these concepts are again applicable to categorized objects.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Aristotle on Categories - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 435
Categories/Concepts/Aristotle/Gadamer: (...) Aristotle [attritubes to] the way in which the order of things becomes visible in speaking of things, the greatest importance everywhere. (The "categories" - and not only that which is expressly called so in Aristotle - are forms of statement). The conceptualization achieved by language is not only used by philosophical thought, but is continued in certain directions.
Concepts/concept formation/Aristotle/Gadamer: (...) the Aristotelian theory of concept formation, the theory of the epagogue, [could] be illustrated by the learning of speech in children (...).
Language and Thought/Aristotle: In fact, even Aristotle, as much as his own training of "logic" was decisively motivated, as much as he endeavored to depict the conscious handling of the logic of definition, especially in the classificatory description of nature, the order of beings and to free it from all linguistic contingencies, remained completely bound into the unity of speaking and thinking.
Gadamer I 436
Categorization: It is the logical ideal of the superordination and subordination of concepts that [in Aristotle] masters the living metaphorics of language, on which all natural concept formation is based. For only a grammar directed towards logic will distinguish the actual meaning of the word from its metaphorical meaning. What originally forms the basis of the life of language and constitutes its logical productivity - the ingenious and inventive finding of commonalities through which things are ordered - is now pushed to the margin as the metaphor and instrumentalized into a rhetorical figure.

1. Top. A 18, 108b 7-31

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-01-25
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