|Terminologies: here, special features of the language use of the individual authors are explained._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Def Altruistic/Dawkins: an organism behaves altruistically when it increases the welfare of another at its expense.
Def Well-Being/Dawkins: is defined as survival chances even if the effect on the actual outlook is so small that it can seem negligible.
Egoism/Altruism/Dawkins: oriented on actual behavior, not on intentions. No psychology of motives!
Altruism/Dawkins: is often falsely attributed: when living creatures actually behave in a way that benefits the "well-being of the species" or "well-being of the group".
Def ESS/Dawkins: an evolutionarilly stable strategy is one that - if the majority of a population adopts it - cannot be overruled by any alternative strategy.
((S) Not defined.)
Narrower Def ESS: a strategy that performs well against copies of itself. It will often encounter copies of itself, since a successful strategy is predominant in a population.
Fitness/Dawkins: the expression should not be used, because it falsely emanates from the individual!
Instead, the selfish gene is the only entity that matters! Genes in children are selected because of their ability to override parents, genes in the parents' body vice versa.
Def Extended phenotype/Dawkins: phenotypic effects of a gene are all the effects of a gene on the body in which it sits.
But it also affects "the world"!
E.g. beavers' dams, birds' nests, shell of the quiver flies (movable cement houses).
In difference to the eye as a "miracle of nature", we do not have to attribute these achievements to processes that occur within the mothers' interior. They are achievements of the creating individual. (Usually called "instinct").
Def haplodiploid: unfertilized eggs develop into males. I.e., e.g., male bark beetles have no father (as is the case with bees and ants).
But in the case of the bark beetles something must penetrate the eggs. This task is performed by bacteria. (Parasites)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Selfish Gene, Oxford 1976
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996
M. St. Dawkins
Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness, Oxford/New York/Heidelberg 1993
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993