Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Terminologies: here, special features of the language use of the individual authors are explained.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Summary Meta data
Dennett I 306
Definition "Epistasis"/Kauffman: Interactions between genes. Suitability landscape strongly determines the development. For example, the creation of a sonnet: forces us to remove some of the beautiful parts that we have worked hard on, because they do not fit into the overall scheme.
Kauffman I 117/118
Definition State Space/Kauffman: Range of possibilities of the light pattern, 2 exp n. With 1000 molecules and a change after a trillionth of a second, the existence time of the universe would not be sufficient to complete a cycle (running through all possible states).
I 121
Networks/Kauffman: Question: How to create networks with short status cycles? Is it difficult to produce them, so they are extremely unlikely?
Solution: Attractor: more than one trajectory can enter the same state cycle.
If attractors are small, more order is created.
I 176
Definition "Supracritical Behavior"/Kauffman: here: abrupt increase in the diversity of the biosphere. Similar to a nuclear chain reaction.
While the biosphere as a whole is supracritical, like a mass of split atomic nuclei, the individual cells that make up the biosphere must be subcritical. This protects the system from chaos. ((s) e.g. So that a house can be built from bricks, not from crumbs.).
I 189
System/cell/order/evolution/supracritical/Kauffman: the fact that we eat our food and do not merge with it indicates a fundamental fact:
Biosphere: supracritical
Cells: subcritical
If we merged with our food, a supercritical explosion would be triggered in the organism.
I 393
Definition Recipient-based communication/Larry Wood: all actors in a system that seek to coordinate behavioural patterns share what happens to them. This is included in the decision-making process. There is a superordinate team goal.
For example, fighter pilots can do without ground support. They react to those other machines that fly the least distance away from them. Similar to the example of flocks of birds.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-03-29
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