|Method: a method is a procedure agreed on by participants of a discussion or research project. In the case of violations of a method, the comparability of the results is in particular questioned, since these no longer come from a set with uniformly defined properties of the elements._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
"Kinship"/biology: can only be determined by comparisons! (VsPhysicists, who dispute the science of biology).
Biology: expression coined around 1800 by Lamarck.
a) Biology of evolutionary causes (research by comparisons and conclusions)
b) biology of immediate causes, (experiments and physiology)
With the discovery that the cell mechanisms in plants and animals are the same, the old separation between botany and zoology seemed no longer useful. Practically all molecular processes are the same.
Misleading classification: descriptive - functional - experimental biology.
E.g. Homology/Mayr: Relationship between species and higher taxa is shown by the occurrence of homologous characteristics. That is, a feature that is derived from the same feature of its next common ancestor.
One always has to conclude homology!
For homology there are many proofs, e.g. position of a structure in relation to other structures, also transitional forms with fossil ancestors._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998