|Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Language/Evolution/Mayr: also languages evolve, but not adaptive, but stochastic! E.g. when the Anglo-Saxons colonized the British Isles, they did not have to adapt the language to the climate. The consideration of ecological factors and their effects on the phenotype characterize a Darwinian classification.
Language/Animals/Mayr: There is no language among animals. Communication systems consist here of exchanging signals. There is no syntax and grammar.
Language/brain: could the lack of language be a reason why the Neandertals did not make more use of their brain?
Language: evolved from about 300,000 to 200,000 years ago in small groups of hunters and collectors due to a selection advantage. Favorable location for increasing brain size._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998