|Systems, philosophy of science: systems are compilations of rules for the formation of statements on a previously defined subject domain. Apart from the - usually recursive - rules for the combination of expressions or signs, the specification of the vocabulary or sign set of the system is also required. See also axioms, axiom systems, theories, strength of theories, expressiveness, rules, order, recursion, models, structure, system theory._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
The 1930s: drastic restructuring. New: Monera (prokaryotes): Bacteria and their relatives are fundamentally different from eukaryotes.
From the origin of life (before approx. 3.8 billion years ago) up to about 1.8 billion years ago, there were exclusively prokaryotes.
Fossils: the earliest evidence of multicellular organisms is approximately 670 million years old.
Superior Kingdom Prokaryota (Monera)
Superior Kingdom Eukaryota
Kingdom Metaphyta (Plants)
Kingdom Metazoa (Animals)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998