|Science: A. Science is a) an inventory of statements on defined subject domains obtained with certain methods, rules and instruments as well as b) a set of methods, instruments and rules for obtaining new statements on the same subject domain. B. Groups of people who are counted to a subject area, whereby these groups are being formed by the common acceptance of methods, rules, instruments and the limitation of the subject areas. See also observation, observability, methods, systems, theories, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, verification._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Science/Mayr: puts great importance on the discovery of new "facts" that the creation of new concepts (or terms) moves into the background. Darwin would not have won the Nobel Prize because "selection" was not a "discovery" but a new concept, a new theory.
Science/Mayr: the development against superstition, in the direction of provability, was unfavorable to biology itself, since it could not offer reproducible experiments.
John Moore (1993) "Eight Criteria of Science":
1. Must be based on data obtained in the field or laboratory by observation or request
Without relying on natural factors.
2. In order to answer questions, data must be collected. In order to confirm assumptions observations must be done.
3. Objective methods must be used to avoid subjective bias.
4. Hypotheses must agree with observations and concepts.
5. Any hypothesis must be verified, competing hypotheses have to be developed. Their suitability is to be compared.
6. Generalizations must be universally valid in the field of corresponding science. Unique events must be explainable, without supernatural factors.
7. Confirmation only after repetition.
8. Steadily improving theories.
"Provincial Science": a polemical concept, introduced for a distinction from physics whose law is universally valid.
Science/Biology/Mayr: the integration of biology into science philosophy has changed many of its principles:
Rejection of strict determinism and trust in universal laws, the acceptance of purely probabilistic predictions and historical representations.
E. M. Carr (Spiritual Scientist) (1961) 5 Differences History/Science:
1. History: Special, Science: General
2. History does not teach lessons
3. History, unlike science, makes no predictions
4. History subjective, science: objective
5. History, unlike science, also touches religious and moral questions.
Science/Evolution/Mayr: Difference: genetic diversity is random and not a fruit of considerations. This difference is not so important, however, because the source of diversity does not play an important role in Darwinism!
Cultural transmission is something quite different than genetic inheritance.
But: the most appropriate theory comes through: this is a Darwinian process._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998