|Life: systems that have at least the following characteristics are alive metabolism, energy input and output, reproductive capacity, adaptation to environmental changes while maintaining the system's own stability. See also systems, bodies._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Singer I 92
Life/Intelligence/Value/Mill: no intelligent human being would want to swap with an animal, not even if it could swap satisfaction for it: no intelligent and sentient person would swap with a non-sensory and empty-headed human being. It is better to be a dissatisfied Socrates than a happy pig.
The reason is that further developed people are able to see both sides.
VsMill/Peter Singer: many critics have questioned this: does Socrates really know what it is like to be an idiot? ((s) See bat example; Literature: Th. Nagel (1974), What is it like to be a bat? in: Philosophical Review 83 (October). 435-50).
Can a wise human being experience the simple pleasures of an uneducated human?
UtilitarianismVsMill/P. Singer: Mill's point of view is difficult to reconcile with hedonistic utilitarianism: the idiot is satisfied, Socrates is not.
Preference Utilitarianism: whether it can be reconciled with Mill's view depends on how different preferences are weighed against each other._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
John St. Mill
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, London 1843
Von Namen, aus: A System of Logic, London 1843
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf, Frankfurt/M. 1993
J. St. Mill
Utilitarianism: 1st (First) Edition Oxford 1998
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015