|Grammar: total domain of linguistic theory encompassing syntax, semantics, phonology, morphology. W.V.O. Quine distinguishes the grammar from the lexicon. L. Wittgenstein calls sentences about language grammatical sentences. See also meaning, lexicon, language._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Grammatical categories/Millikan: grammatical categories are nowadays understood by categories of surface patterns classified by surface transformations, e.g. "Pegasus exists" behaves to "Pegasus existed yesterday" as "John trained" to "John trained yesterday". Therefore "exist" and "train" fall into a common grammatical category.
E.g. "There are books on the table" behaves to "Are there books on the table?" as "Cats are curious" to "Are cats curious?".
E.g. "Here are books on the table" does not become "Are here books on the table?"
Therefore: "there" falls into a common grammatical category with "cats" but not with "here". But these are only surface transformations._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987
"Varieties of Purposive Behavior", in: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals, R. W. Mitchell, N. S. Thomspon and H. L. Miles (Eds.) Albany 1997, pp. 189-1967
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005