|Everyone, all: “everyone” and “all” are colloquial forms, which are formalized in logic as quantifiers (universal quantifier). While "all" refers to a collective in general, "everyone" refers to individuals. E.g. everyone can win the lottery, but not all can win the lottery._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Everyone/All/Belief/Belief Attribution/Millikan: E.g. "Ralph believes that every member of our secret club is a spy".
A) Ralph says in his inner language "Every member ..."
B) A form with a gap: "___ is a spy" is filled each time by another member. This is e.g. also possible even if Ralph does not know anything about our club.
Sense: is then the same as in the clearer example: "Of each member believes Ralph ..."
Again, for both readings it applies: a relation between Ralph and a belief type is depicted._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987
"Varieties of Purposive Behavior", in: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals, R. W. Mitchell, N. S. Thomspon and H. L. Miles (Eds.) Albany 1997, pp. 189-1967
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005