. Plato on Language - Dictionary of Arguments

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Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Plato on Language - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 409
Laguage/Plato/Gadamer: (Ancient philosophy had no word for what we call language.)
Gadamer I 411
GadamerVsPlato: Plato [in Cratylos](1-3) obviously retreats from the real relationship between word and thing. Here, he explains the question of how one can recognize existence as something too great, and there, where he speaks of it, where he thus describes dialectic in its true essence, as in the excursus of the 7th letter(4), linguisticity is only envisaged as an external moment of dubious ambiguity. It is one of the pre-walls (pro-teinomena) that precede and that the true dialectician must leave behind, like the sensual appearance of things.
Thinking: The pure thinking of ideas, the Dianoia, is mute as a dialogue of the soul with itself (aneu phones).
Logos: The Logos(5) is the stream that emanates from such thinking through the mouth (rheuma dia tou stomatos meta phthongou).
>Language and Thought/Plato
Gadamer I 412
In any case, even where Plato, prefacing his dialectic, transcends the level of discussion of "Cratylus", we read no other relationship to language than (...) : tool, image and production and evaluation of the same from the original image, the things themselves.
Recognition: Thus, even if he does not recognize the area of words (onomata) as having an independent function of recognition, and precisely by calling for the transgression of this area, he adheres to the question horizon in which the question of the "correctness" of the name arises.
Correctness: Even if he does not want to know anything about the natural correctness of names (e.g. in the context of the 7th letter), he still holds onto a relationship of equality (homoion) as a yardstick there, too: for him, image and archetype is precisely the metaphysical model in which he thinks all reference to the notion of the noetic.
>Word/Plato, >Correctness/Plato.

1. Krat. 384 d.
2. Krat. 388 c.
3. Krat. 438 d-439 b.
4. VII. letter 342ff.
5. soph. 263 e, 264 a.

Saussure I 60
Language/Cratylus/Plato: Question: is the meaning of a word owed to natural practicing or to social-social genesis?

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2024-05-24
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