Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Probability, philosophy: If one talks of probability, it is a question of statements applying more or less probable, which describe the course of processes and their results; probability is not about the properties of objects. See also subjective probability, objective probability, probability function, probability distribution, Bayesianism, chance, probability conditional, relative frequency.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 172
Probability/philosophy/society/justice/Rawls: that probability plays a role in the theory of justice and philosophy is a consequence of the contract theory, which considers moral philosophy as part of the theory of rational choice. The veil of ignorance (the members of the initial situation of a society to be established do not know anything about their later position) leads directly to the problem of the decision under uncertainty.
Problem: we must not allow the principles we have chosen to depend on the willingness of individuals to take risks. There must be a risk assessment, but it must not depend on the individual individuals.
Probability estimation/Rawls: must be based on known facts.
I 173
We need objective reasons, especially because individuals want their decisions to be plausible to others. The information should, however, come from the principle of the insufficient reason (equal probability distribution for all unknown possibilities) and not from the knowledge of contingent facts.
Problem: lastly, the assessment must be about the assessment of a single individual, but we only have the assessment of changing individuals. Rawls: at the moment I cannot offer a solution for this.
I 174
Perspective/Rawls: Problem: we can put ourselves in another person's position, but we cannot evaluate his situation including his character and all circumstances, without any reference to the details of our own conception of what a good is. The value of the circumstances of others is not as the construction would have expected, the value of the circumstances for the other himself.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rawl I
J. Rawls
A Theory of Justice: Original Edition Oxford 2005

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-06-02
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