|Upton I 94
Terminology/Vygotsky/Upton: [according to Vygotsky] learning takes place within what he calls the zone of proximal development (ZPD). This concept refers to a child’s developmental potential. (…) a child’s actual developmental level is determined by their independent problem solving, while their potential developmental level is determined by the problem solving they can achieve with instruction from an adult or more knowledgeable peer. The ZPD is the distance between these actual and potential developmental levels. Children develop
Upton I 95
new ways of thinking and problem solving through working with more knowledgeable others on tasks that are within this zone. If children are to develop new ways of thinking, it is really important that the tasks that children are given are just out of reach of their independent problem-solving abilities, but not so difficult that they cannot do them even with help.
Scaffolding: Adults teach children new skills gradually through a process known as scaffolding.
_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
L. S. Vygotsky
Thought and Language Cambridge, MA 1986
Developmental Psychology 2011