Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 10 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Bureaucracy Parsons Habermas IV 432
Bureaucracy/Weber/Parsons/Habermas: Max Weber bureaucratization thesis: In modern times, bureaucratization is increasing. Talcott ParsonsVsWeber/Habermas: instead of a trend towards bureaucratization, there is a trend towards associationism. Many, however, feel an increase in bureaucracy. Symptoms of this are a deterioration ((s) of the feeling) of "community".
Habermas IV 433
"Privatization": it is emphasized that the modern community has been "privatized" and many relationships have been moved into the context of large formal organizations. ((s) Parsons characterizes here an attitude that can be attributed to Weber). Parsons: Bureaucratization does not threaten to flood everything. On the contrary, the system of mass communication is a functional equivalent of some characteristics of the "Gemeinschaft" and beyond that, one that allows the individual to participate selectively in the context of his/her individual standards and wishes. (1)
HabermasVsParsons: 1) Mass communication: is not designed to counteract the "privatization" of lifestyle, 2) The generalization of formal legal claims cannot easily be understood in the sense of expanding democratic decision-making processes.


1.T.Parsons, The System of Modern Societies, Englewood Cliffs 1971, S. 116f.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Freedom Weber Habermas III 320
Freedom/Weber/Habermas: Weber's thesis of the loss of freedom: in his present diagnosis, Weber is concerned that the subsystems of procedural rational action break away from their value-rational foundations and become self-dynamically independent. Weber relates this to the fact that the structures of consciousness, differentiated into independent cultural value spheres, are embodied in correspondingly antagonistic orders of life.
Habermas IV 432
Freedom/Weber/Habermas: Thesis: in modern societies, the disintegration of religious and metaphysical worldviews threatens the relationships of solidarity and the identity of individuals who can no longer align their lives with "last ideas". Talcott ParsonsVsWeber: see Freedom/Parsons.
Method/Habermas: we did not need to be interested in this dispute when it came to descriptions of global trends that were difficult to verify. Parson's differing position, however, results deductively from his description of the modernization process. See Modernism/Parsons.
Habermas IV 454
Freedom/Weber/Habermas: Weber's thesis of the loss of freedom: both prevail in bureaucratization: the highest form of social rationality and the most effective subsumption of the acting subjects under the material violence of an apparatus that has become independent above their heads. HabermasVsWeber: the thesis owes its plausibility solely to the ambiguous use of the term "rationalization". Its meaning shifts, depending on the context, from the rationality of action to the rationality of the system. On the one hand it is about the perspective of members, on the other hand about the image of a rationally working machine. (1)
Habermas IV 455
"Hard as steel housing"/Weber/Habermas: Together with the dead machine, the living machine of the independent bureaucracy is working to create that "housing of bondage". HabermasVsWeber: the talk of the living machine is metaphorical. However, Weber intuitively anticipated the distinction between system and purpose rationality.


1.M. Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, hrsg. v. J. Winckelmann, Köln, 1964, S. 1060.

Weber I
M. Weber
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism - engl. trnsl. 1930
German Edition:
Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus München 2013


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Freedom Parsons Habermas IV 310
Freedom/Action/Parsons/Habermas: Parsons tries to give a sociological turn to the Kantian idea of freedom as obedience to self-imposed laws: the actor can first adopt a conformist attitude based on recognition of their claim to validity. The force that can be felt through feelings of obligation is not only compatible with the autonomy of action, but in some ways even constitutes it. This force is no longer perceived as external violence but from within by penetrating the motives. Habermas: this reflects the double character of freedom, which is constituted by the personal recognition of a connection to superpersonal orders.
Habermas IV 432
Freedom/Society/Parsons/Habermas: Talcott ParsonsVsWeber: Parsons does not believe that in modern societies the disintegration of religious and metaphysical worldviews threatens the relationships of solidarity and the identity of individuals who can no longer base their lives on "last ideas". Rather, he is convinced that modern societies have brought about an incomparable increase in freedom for the mass of the population. (1)

1.Talcott Parsons, Belief, Unbelief and Disbelief, in: T. Parsons, Action Theory and the Human Condition, NY 1978, S. 320ff.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Modernism Habermas III 297
Modernism/Habermas: Modernism has no reserves in ethics or science that would be exempt from the critical force of hypothetical thought. First, however, a generalization of the level of learning, which has been achieved with the terminology of religious-metaphysical worldviews, is required. Based on Weber's analysis, two problems are encountered on the threshold of modernity: 1. Religious asceticism must first penetrate the non-religious areas of life in order to subject profane actions to the maxims of ethics of conviction. Weber identifies this process with the emergence of Protestant professional ethics.
2. In the emergence of modern science, the decoupling of the theory from practical experience must be overcome. This happened in the form of experimental natural sciences. (1)
III 299
Protestant Ethics/Weber/Habermas: in traditional society, the cognitive potential created by the rationalized worldviews within which the demystification process takes place cannot yet become effective. It is only delivered in modern societies. This process means the modernisation of society. (2)
IV 433
Modernism/HabermasVsParsons/Habermas: ParsonsVsWeber: Parsons describes the same phenomena that Weber can interpret as signs of social pathologies as further evidence of the formation of a form of solidarity appropriate to the complexity of modern societies. Parsons/Habermas: through his division of the basic concepts, he creates a synchronization of the rationalization of the lifeworld with increases in the complexity of the social system. In this way, he prevents exactly the distinctions that we have to make if we want to grasp the pathologies occurring in modernism. See Bureaucracy/Parsons).


1.W. Krohn, Die neue Wissenschaft der Renaissance, in: G. Böhme, W. v.d. Daele, W. Krohn, Experimentelle Philosophie, Frankfurt, 1977, S. 13ff.
2.Vgl. H.V. Gumbrecht, R. Reichardt, Th.Schleich (Hrg), Sozialgeschichte der Französischen Aufklärung, 2 Bde, München, 1981

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Modernism Parsons Habermas IV 303
Modernism/Parsons/HabermasVsParsons/Habermas: Parson's theory of modernism is too harmonistic because it does not have the means for a plausible explanation of pathological development patterns.
Habermas IV 420
Modernism/Parsons/HabermasVsParsons/Habermas: Parsons' theory of modernity has a Janus face: A) it differs from a system functionalism that exclusively emphasizes the traits of complexity in modern societies. That's Luhmann's line. See Modernism/Luhmann.
Habermas IV 421
Method/ParsonsVsLuhmann/Habermas: Parsons understands social modernization not only as systemic rationalization, but as action-related rationalization.
Habermas IV 422
HabermasVsParsons: Problem: Parsons lacks a social concept designed from an action perspective. Therefore, he cannot describe the rationalization of the lifeworld and the increase in the complexity of action systems as separate, interacting, but often also contradictory processes. Therefore, he cannot grasp the corresponding dialectic and must reduce these phenomena to the degree of crisis symptoms that can be explained according to the pattern of inflation and deflation. (See Revolutions/Parsons).
Habermas IV 432
Modernism/Parsons/ParsonsVsWeber/Habermas: Parsons does not arrive at a different view than Weber through a divergent description of global trends, about which one could argue; rather, this view is deductively derived from his analysis of the modernization process: "When developed modern societies are characterized by a high degree of inherent complexity, and when they have this complexity only in all four dimensions of adaptation capacity. If we can simultaneously increase the differentiation of media-controlled subsystems, inclusion and value generation, then there is an analytical relationship between a) the high complexity of the system and b) universalistic forms of social integration and informal institutionalized individualism. Habermas: Parsons therefore draws a harmonized picture of modernity. See Bureaucracy/Parsons.
Habermas IV 433
Modernism/Parsons/HabermasVsParsons/Habermas: Parsons must reduce sociopathological phenomena to systemic imbalances; then the specific of social crises is lost. For self-regulated systems, which must permanently secure their risky existence by adapting to conditions of a contingent and over-complex environment,
Habermas IV 434
internal imbalances are the normal state.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Preferences Parsons Habermas IV 336
Preferences/Parsons/Habermas: ParsonsVsWeber: Example: The "social action" of the entrepreneur represents only one of several types of purposive and value-rational action: The modern doctor typically acts as universally and functionally specified as the businessman of the capitalist economy, but at the same time he/she is subject to the rules of professional ethics that prevent him/her from pursuing his/her economic interests by all legally permitted means. (1) See Terminology/Parsons: pattern variables. Habermas: the pattern-variables are suitable for describing the fact that modern societies may consciously adopt contrary decision patterns for different areas of life and switch from a combination of preferences to the opposite. (See Decisions/Parsons).
Habermas IV 337
Preferences/Professions/Parsons: the instrumental activism from which Parsons reads the action orientation of American businessmen and doctors in the 1940s and 1950s and which he sees as being determined by basic decisions for an emotionally neutral attitude, universalism, performance orientation and a field-independent, cognitive style directed towards the specific, is simultaneously depicted on three levels, namely in structurally analog motives for action, professional roles and cultural values. (2) HabermasVsParsons: Problem: the scope of decision regulated by preference patterns is not filled by interpretation performances of the actor. The model does not permit any initiatives that could then be investigated in terms of how the various resources of the lifeworld, acquired competences, recognised norms and traditional cultural knowledge converge and form a reservoir for action orientations.


1.Talcott Parsons, The Professions and the Social Structure; The Motivation of Economic Activities, in: T. Parsons, Essays in Sociological Theory, Rev. ed. NY 1949.
2. Talcott Parsons, The Social System, NY 1951, S. 78

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Professional Ethics Weber Habermas IV 431
Professional Ethics/Weber/Habermas: Weber's thesis: the professional ethics developed in the early phase of industrialization, which was particularly widespread among capitalist entrepreneurs and legally trained civil servants, did not prevail in the employment system of developed capitalism. Instrumentalism/Weber: professional ethics (see Protestant Ethics/Weber) was superseded by instrumentalistic attitudes that were spread into the core areas of academic professions. (See Talcott ParsonsVsWeber).

Weber I
M. Weber
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism - engl. trnsl. 1930
German Edition:
Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus München 2013


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Protestant Ethics Parsons Habermas IV 431
Protestant Ethics/Parsons/ParsonsVsWeber/Habermas: contrary to Weber's thesis that Protestant ethics had been replaced by growing instrumentalistic attitudes in modern professions, Parsons is of the opinion that it is an important factor of orientation today as it was in the past (in the 1970s of the 20th century). Parson's thesis: Ultimately, work is evaluated against a religious background. (1)

1.Talcott Parsons, Belief, Unbelief and Disbelief, in: T. Parsons, Action Theory and the Human Condition, NY 1978, S. 320.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Purposive Action Parsons Habermas IV 336
Purposive Action/Parsons/Habermas: ParsonsVsWeber: Example: The "social action" of the entrepreneur represents only one of several types of purposive and value-rational action: The modern doctor typically acts as universally and functionally specified as the businessman of the capitalist economy, but at the same time he/she is subject to the rules of professional ethics that prevent him/her from pursuing his/her economic interests by all legally permitted means. (1) See Terminology/Parsons: pattern variables. Habermas: the pattern-variables are suitable for describing the fact that modern societies may consciously adopt contrary decision patterns for different areas of life and switch from a combination of preferences to the opposite.


1.Talcott Parsons, The Professions and the Social Structure; The Motivation of Economic Activities, in: T. Parsons, Essays in Sociological Theory, Rev. ed. NY 1949.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Values Weber Habermas IV 430
Values/Weber/Habermas: Weber takes a sceptical view of values according to which a moral consciousness guided by principles can neither be philosophically explained nor socially stabilized without being embedded in a religious world view. HabermasVsWeber/RawlsVsWeber/KantVsWeber/Habermas: this view cannot be maintained in view of the cognitivistic approaches from Kant to Rawls. It is also empirically refuted by the spread of a humanistically enlightened consciousness since the days of the Enlightenment.
ParsonsVsWeber/Habermas: Parsons secularization theory is more plausible. (See Secularization/Parsons).

Weber I
M. Weber
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism - engl. trnsl. 1930
German Edition:
Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus München 2013


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981