Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Attachment Theory Cultural Psychology Upton I 58
Attachment Theory/Cultural Psychology/Upton: cross-cultural research has highlighted variations in attachment classifications, even in Western cultures (van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg, 1988)(1). >Strange Situation/Attachment Theory.
Ratios of Secure (%)/ Insecure-avoidant (%) / Insecure-resistant (%) – patterns of attachment:
USA: 65 – 21 - 14
Germany: 57 35 - 8 Japan: 68 – 26 - 27
UK: 75 – 22 – 3(1)
Upton I 59
However, in each country the majority of attachments are rated secure and this has been demonstrated in other studies (e.g. Thompson, 2006)(2). This is often taken as evidence that the meaning of attachment relationships is universal and cultural variations simply illustrate how different caregiving patterns lead to varying percentages of secure and insecure attachments. Secure/insecure attachment/Interpretation: another interpretation of this data is that what qualifies as secure or insecure attachment varies across cultures.
Japan: In Japan, for example, mothers respond differently to their babies when compared to Western mothers (Rothbaum et al., 2000)(3). Japanese mothers usually have much closer contact with their infants and strive to anticipate their infants’ needs rather than react to their infants’ cries as Western mothers tend to do. Social routines and independent exploration are given less emphasis than in the West.
VsAinsworth: The Strange Situation has been criticised for being ethnocentric in its approach and assumptions, as it does not take into account the
Upton I 60
diversity of socialising contexts that exist in the world. Cultural values influence the nature on attachment. (Cole and Tan, 2007)(4).
Africa: in Nigeria, for example, Hausa infants are traditionally cared for by the grandmother and siblings as well as the mother and tend to develop attachments to a large number of carers (Harkness and Super, 1995)(5).
Western countries: In Western cultures, increasing numbers of children spend time being looked after by someone other than the mother – either with relatives or in day care (Hochschild and Machong, 1989)(6). Might this influence their response to maternal separation? What does this then suggest about all those children classified as insecurely attached?


1. van Ijzendoorn, M. and Kroonenberg, P. (1988) Cross cultural patterns of attachment: a meta-analysis of the Strange Situation. Child Development, 59: 147—56.
2. Thompson, R.A. (2006) The development of the person, in Eisenberg, N (ed.) Handbook of
Child Psychology, Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th edn). New York:
Wiley.
3. Rothbaum, F, Weisz, J, Pott, M, Miyake, K and Morelli, G (2000) Attachment and culture: security in the United States and Japan. American Psychologist, 55: 1093—1104.
4. Cole, P.M. and Tan, P.Z. (2007) Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective, in Grusec, J.E.
and Hastings, P.D. (eds) Handbook of Socialization. New York: Guilford.
5. Harkness, S and Super, CM (1995) Culture and parenting, in Bornstein, MH (ed.) Handbook of Parenting, Vol. 3. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
6. Hochschild, A and Machong, A (1989) The Second Shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking Penguin.


Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011
Strange Situation Ainsworth Upton I 57
Strange Situation/Ainsworth/Upton: The standard method for assessing attachment type in infancy is the Strange Situation developed by Ainsworth and Bell (1970)(1). This 20-minute procedure has eight episodes, designed to expose infants to increasing amounts of stress. Carers (typically mothers) and their one-year-old infants are observed in a playroom through a two-way mirror. The child’s attachment behaviours around their parents when in an unfamiliar environment are recorded. The infants experience the following situations:

1. The mother and infant enter the room, which looks like a typical GP waiting room with chairs, magazines and some toys.
2. The mother and infant are left alone. The mother sits quietly on a chair, responding if the infant seeks attention. The infant usually plays with available toys.
3. A stranger enters the room, talks to the mother, then gradually approaches the infant with a toy.
4. The mother leaves the stranger alone in the room with the infant. The stranger tries to engage the infant with toys. If the infant becomes distressed the scenario ends here.
5. The mother returns and waits to see how the infant greets her. The stranger leaves quietly and the mother waits until the infant settles, and then she leaves again.
6. The infant is left in the room alone. If the infant becomes distressed the scenario ends here.
7. The stranger returns and again tries to engage the infant with toys.
8. The mother returns, the stranger leaves and the reunion behaviour is noted.

Observers are particularly interested in four infant behaviours: separation anxiety, willingness to explore, stranger anxiety and response to the mother following separation (reunion behaviour). >Strange Situation/Attachment theory.
Upton I 59
VsAinsworth: The Strange Situation has been criticised for being ethnocentric in its approach and assumptions, as it does not take into account the
Upton I 60
diversity of socialising contexts that exist in the world. Cultural values influence the nature of attachment. (Cole and Tan, 2007)(2). >Attachment theory/Cultural psychology, >Cultural values.
1. Ainsworth, M and Bell, S (1970) Attachment, exploration and separation: illustrated by the behaviour of 1 year olds in a Strange Situation. Child Development, 41:49—65.
2. Cole, P.M. and Tan, P.Z. (2007) Emotion socialization from a cultural perspective, in Grusec, J.E.
and Hastings, P.D. (eds) Handbook of Socialization. New York: Guilford.


Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011


No results. Please choose an author or concept or try a different keyword-search.