Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 1 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Features Lyons I 81
Def marked/feature/linguistics/Lyons: "("positive"): For example, the plural form is often marked by an s, i.e. the s is a positive sign for the plural, while the singular is not marked by a sign but "unmarked, "neutral"). Def unmarked/without feature/linguistics/Lyons: For example, lack of a feature ("neutral") singular form due to absence of the s, while the plural ("positive") is marked by an s. Order/Distinction.
Lyons: marked/unmarked: one could also say presence contrasts with absence.
General/N.B.: often the unmarked form is of more general significance than the marked one.
More general, the members of the pair do not have to be characterized by the presence or absence of a feature:
Example "dog"/"bitch": "dog" contains male and female form.
This leads to a characteristic form of error: in pleonasm, either a tautology "female bitch" or a contradiction results: "male bitch".
I 82
Marked/unmarked: the difference takes place on the paradigmatic level.
I 167
Grammatical features/subclasses/Lyons: the previous subclasses can then be subdivided finer, i.e. hierarchically:
Na > {Na1, Na2} etc.
Problem/Lyon(s): due to the hierarchical order there is not always a unique ((s) "way back") within the structure.
I 167
Problem/Lyons: 1. this leads to a large number of incoherent word lists and to many multiple occurrences of a word in several lists.
2. It complicates the formulation of grammatical rules.
I 168
Chomsky: in reality this subcategorization of the vocabulary is not strictly hierarchical, but leads to overlapping e.g. proper names {John, Egypt}, inanimate {book, Egypt} etc. Problem/Chomsky: if the subcategorization is expressed by substitution rules, one of the two distinctions must be superior, the other cannot be represented naturally anymore. For example, if first the division into proper names and appellatives (e.g. book, human) is made and then a division into "human"/"non-human", then the only way to establish a rule is by referring this rule to both completely incoherent classes, namely "proper name-human" and "appellative-non-human". Since the lexicon does not contain a list of "human nouns".
Chomsky: this gets worse and worse with increasing refinement.
Solution/Chomsky: a grammar must not consist exclusively of substitution rules.
Chomsky/Lyons: we will not discuss his solution here, since we assume a very simple system.
Def Grammatical Feature/Lyons: for nouns. For example, "concrete", "animate", "human", whereby "concrete" must be independent of "animate"/"inanimate".
This feaeture is used for classification or "indexing".
I 169
E.g. Boy: [Appellative,],[Human],[Masculine].
Notation: square brackets.
Lexical substitution rules/replacement: are then formulated in such a way that one can select a word according to features.

Lexicon/Lyons: new: we have to abandon the set of rules of the form
Na > {boy,...}
but the more general form remains valid:

X > x I x e X
New: X is now the word class that satisfies characterization by features.
List/N.B.: of class compositions e.g.[Appellative],[Human],[Masculine] there is no list. (order).
Grammar/Semantics/Congruence/Lyons: the expressions used for the features e.g. "proper name", "appellative" were called grammatically.
I 170
We have not yet departed from the principle that such expressions, when they stand for word classes, are terms for distributional categories. N.B.: this leads us to semantics!
Classification: because of features such as "animated", etc., this often contradicts the meaning of words.
VsContent Grammar/Lyons: this is the reason why most authors have withdrawn from "content grammar".
In a language description, the lexicon must contain both grammatical and semantic information for each word.
Lyon's thesis: There is often congruence between semantic and grammatical classification. There the grammatical information can be partly taken from the meaning of the word.
I 171
Neutral/Grammar/Lyons: sometimes has to be distinguished from "inanimate": e.g. "The child ate its dinner".

Ly II
John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

Lyons I
John Lyons
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995


The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Various Authors Lyons, J. Vs Various Authors Lyons I 169 / I 134
Grammar/Semantics/Congruence/Lyons: we called the expressions used for the characteristics e.g. "proper name" or "appellative" grammatically.
I 170
We have not yet abandoned the principle that such expressions, when they stand for word classes, are terms for distributional categories. N.B.: that leads us to semantics!
Classification: due to characteristics such as "animated" etc. this often contradicts the meaning of the words (see Chapter 7 below).
VsContent-Related Grammar/Lyons: this is the reason why most authors have withdrawn from "content-related grammar".
In a language description, the lexicon must contain both grammatical and semantic information for each word.
Lyon's thesis: there is often congruence between semantic and grammatical classification. There one can infer the grammatical information partly from the word meaning.

Ly II
John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

Lyons I
John Lyons
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995