Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Universalism Nussbaum Brocker I 898
Universalism/Nussbaum: International feminism, which wants to develop political bite, must accept normative recommendations that cross the boundaries of culture, nation, religion, race, class (cf. Nussbaum 2002(1)). >Norms, >Culture, >Nation, >Religion
VsUniversalism: for this very reason it is often exposed to accusations of "westernization" and "colonization". It is considered problematic to presuppose and use concepts such as dignity, freedom, and the integrity of the body that have arisen in one cultural context in order to evaluate realities in another (...).
>Western rationalism, >Colonialism, cf. >Postcolonialism.
NussbaumVsVs: 1. the "argument from culture", 2. the "argument from the good of diversity" and 3. the "argument from paternalism":
Brocker I 899
NussbaumVsCulture Relativism: Argument 1. belongs to cultural relativism. Especially in times of globl media networking, it is difficult to distinguish which norms come from within a culture and which are imposed from outside.(2) >Cultural relativism.
2. Diversity: according to this argument, the world is rich precisely because we do not all agree on a single set of categories, but speak different languages of value.
NussbaumVs: Traditions are not worth preserving per se. The objection does not undermine the search for universal values, it makes them virtually necessary, because a framework is necessary for the evaluation of traditions.
>Cultural values, >Cultural traditions.
3. Paternalism: Thesis: by applying a set of universal norms as a yardstick to the different societies of the world, we show too little respect for people's freedom of action and, derived from this, underestimate their role as democratic citizens.
NussbaumVsVs: a universalist approach would eliminate paternalistic tendencies of illiberal subgroups in favour of strengthening the ability of individual action.
Brocker I 900
UniversalismVsColonialism/Nussbaum: Why not stick to the claim of universalisation? "[F]ar from being colonialist, ideas of individual life-control and life-planning are an expression of the struggle against colonialism«.(3)
1. Martha C. Nussbaum, »Die feministische Kritik des Liberalismus«, in: dies., Konstruktionen der Liebe, des Begehrens und der Fürsorge. Drei philosophische Aufsätze, Stuttgart 2002, 15-89.
2. Ibid. p. 49
3. Ibid. p. 68
Sandra Seubert, „Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (2000)“, in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

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