Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Rationality Ayer Black III 25
Rationality / Ayer / Black: he could say no proof VsRationality is possible, because nothing is allowed, at this stage, as evidence. - ((s) because we do not have the standards). - Black: problem: if there is no reason Vsrationality, then there is none Vsirrationality.

Ayer I
Alfred J. Ayer
"Truth" in: The Concept of a Person and other Essays, London 1963
In
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Ayer II
Alfred Jules Ayer
Language, Truth and Logic, London 1936
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke

Ayer III
Alfred Jules Ayer
"The Criterion of Truth", Analysis 3 (1935), pp. 28-32
In
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994


Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994
Rationality Hume Black III 21
Rationality / Hume / HumeVsRationality / Black: ("agnostic rationalist"): listens to the reasons - but doubts the foundation for beliefs and actions.
Hume I 20
Rationalism / Representation / Deleuze: rationalism makes the representation of a criterion be based on the idea in the mind - ((s)> Brandom) - HumeVs: that will not work, because the generality of the imagination may not be an idea in itself.
D. Hume
I Gilles Delueze David Hume, Frankfurt 1997 (Frankreich 1953,1988)
II Norbert Hoerster Hume: Existenz und Eigenschaften Gottes aus Speck(Hg) Grundprobleme der großen Philosophen der Neuzeit I Göttingen, 1997

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994
Rationality Singer Max Black The Prevalence of Humbug Cornell University Press Ithaca/London 1983

23
Rationality/P. Singer/circularity/self-justification/reasoning/RationalityVsVs: thesis: the challenge VsRationality must be rejected.
---
III 24
Because it questions something, which is a prerequisite. - BlackVs: Problem: it does not help if someone is too stubborn to recognize a good reason.

SingerP I
Peter Singer
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011

SingerP II
P. Singer
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015


The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Geach, P. Black Vs Geach, P. III 22
Rationality/Geach/Black: Thesis: ~ "although it is reasonable to ask for reasons, it is not always reasonable. E.g. it is not reasonable to ask for what reason you should ever ask for reasons.
III 23
E.g. Someone who rejects the asking for reasons may not ask others why they need reasons. Otherwise the questioner shows that he is not totally independent of reasons. (Self-contradiction, contradiction). Black: thus Geach assumes that the Skepticus is a militant anti-rationalist who rejects all practice.
Rationality/Hume/Black: Hume, on the other hand, goes along with that, he was just never presented with the justification.
Geach/Black: with him we would have to say, "I cannot respond to the anti-rationalists at all, because his question is itself unreasonable."
BlackVsGeach: that means that we ourselves must have good reasons to reject the question, and that would not affect the anti-rationalists at all. According to Geach, the responder would be just as irrational.
Black: (see below) but it must not be assumed that the challenger is a militant anti-rationalist. Even a complete skeptic VsRationality can maliciously try to harass the defenders of rationality.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994
Rationalism Black Vs Rationalism III 21
VsRationality/Black: the challenger: ("Why should I be rational?"): We can assume that in different variants: 1) Def militant anti-rationalist/terminology/Black: is like the cry of a donkey. He uses expressions like "reason" or "rational justification" only in distancing quotation marks. He is insensitive to rational persuasion. 2) Def agnostic rationalist/terminology/Black: he listens to reasons, but despairs, like Hume, over finding a rational basis for his beliefs and actions. But in terms of actions and thoughts he is conformist. That makes him a victim of relativism which claims that "our rationality" is culture-dependent. 3) Def Trustful rationalist/Terminology/Black: pursues a rational lifestyle wholeheartedly, but undogmatically, and it is certain that there are good reasons for his actions, only that he can not bring them up. Anti-Rationalism/VsRationalism/Challenge/Black: In the following I depart from type 2: the agnostic rationalists, like Hume. III 22
Rationality/Geach/Black: Thesis: ~"although it is reasonable to ask for reasons, it is not always reasonable. E.g. it is not reasonable to ask for what reason you should ever ask for reasons.
Max Black
I Black Bedeutung und Intention aus "Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung Georg Meggle (Hrsg) Frankf/M 1979
II Black Sprache München 1973
III Black The Prevalence of Humbug ornell University Press Ithaka/London 1983

The author or concept searched is found in the following theses of the more related field of specialization.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Rationality Singer, P. Black III 23
Rationality /Circularity /Self-justification / Reasoning / Rationality / P. Singer/VsVs: Thesis: the challenge VsRationality must be rejected,
III 24
because it puts something in question, which is assumed. (Cambridge 1979, 203).