Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 7 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Illusory Correlation McGarty Haslam I 238
Illusory correlation/McGarty: McGarty et al. (1993)(1) asked whether the illusory correlation effect was more than a byproduct of passive information processing but might instead reflect an active process of trying to make sense of the stimuli. The approach was built on the ideas of Fiedler (>Illusory correlation/Fiedler; Fiedler (1991)(2)) and Smith (>Illusory correlation/Smith; Smith (1991(3)). McGarty: Question: [are there] ways of interpreting the information presented to participants such that the so-called illusory correlation was actually not a distortion of reality but a fair response to the information presented to participants. (Cf. >Experiment/Gifford/Hamilton).
Thesis: when presented with two groups about which nothing was known prior to the experiment, participants would presume that there must be some difference between those groups and that they would be motivated to discover what that difference was. That is, in the absence of prior information that there was no difference between the groups, we expected the participants to search for a meaningful way to see the groups as in some way different. >Social World/McGarty, >Social World/Bruner, >Social Word/James.
Haslam I 239
Fiedler/Smith: if perceivers entertained the hypothesis that Group A is more positive than negative, then they have ten pieces of evidence that support this hypothesis (i.e., 18 – 8) but only five pieces of
Haslam I 240
evidence (i.e., 9 – 4) that support the alternative hypothesis that Group B is more positive than negative. (Cf. Fiedler (1991)(2) and Smith (1991)(3); >Illusory correlation/Fiedler, >Illusory correlation/Smith). McGartyVsFiedler/McGartyVsSmith: Thesis (McGarty and Turner(1992)(1): rather than simply encoding (or losing) this information, perceivers go beyond the information given in order to refine and sharpen the contrast between the two groups.
Test: if people were expecting that the groups they were viewing were different, then their task was to search for plausible ways to differentiate between the groups. Intriguingly, if this were the case then we should expect to find differentiation when there were expectations even if there was no stimulus information at all. We tested this idea simply by telling participants (a) that there were twice as many statements about Group A as about Group B and (b) that there were twice as many positive statements as negative ones.
Result: When they responded by indicating how they expected group members to behave, there was evidence of significant levels of illusory correlation (such that Group B was represented more negatively than Group A) in five of six tests.
[In a second study] We reasoned that if the illusory correlation effect was produced by reinforcing initial expectations that there should be differences between the two groups, then we should be able to eliminate the effect by reducing the motivation to detect such differences. To examine this idea, we replicated Hamilton and Gifford’s first study (>Experiment/Gifford/Hamilton), but told the participants that the large group (A) was composed of right-handed people and the small group (B) was composed of left-handed people. As predicted, participants’ subsequent responses revealed no evidence of perceived difference between the two groups (i.e., no evidence of illusory correlation) – presumably because they were not looking for differences.

1. McGarty, C., Haslam, S.A., Turner, J.C. and Oakes, P.J. (1993) ‘Illusory correlation as accentuation of actual intercategory difference: Evidence for the effect with minimal stimulus information’, European Journal of Social Psychology, 23: 391–410.
2. Fiedler, K. (1991) ‘The tricky nature of skewed frequency tables: An information loss account of distinctiveness-based illusory correlations’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 24–36.
3. Smith, E.R. (1991) ‘Illusory correlation in a simulated exemplar-based memory’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27: 107–23.


Craig McGarty, „Stereotype Formation. Revisiting Hamilton and Gifford’s illusory correlation studies“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications


Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017
Illusory Correlation Smith Haslam I 237
Illusory correlation/Smith: Eliot Smith(1991)(1) proposed a new account that did not afford any special importance to paired or doubly distinctive information. (SmithVsHamilton, SmithVsGifford). >Illusory correlation/Fiedler, >Illusory correlation/psychological theories, >Illusory correlation/Social psychology, >Illusory correlation/Gifford/Hamilton. Smith (like Fiedler) explained the illusory correlation effect as a natural consequence of asking people to process skewed distributions of information. In effect, the new models were explanations of the illusory correlation effect rather than of stereotype formation. See also Berndsen et al., (1998)(2), McConnell et al., (1994)(3), Sherman et al., 2009)(4).
Haslam I 238
Smith posited the existence of an information-processing architecture derived from work on connectionist modelling. He argued that if we assume that perceivers possess a cognitive system which, in an illusory correlation study, is forming and storing impressions of the two groups, then it is very plausible that the impression of the larger group will be more positive than that of the smaller group due simply to properties of the information set to which they are exposed. This is because, in the case of the larger group there are ten more positive pieces of information than there are negative pieces, while in the case of the smaller group this difference is just five pieces of information. If the positivity of impressions stems from the balance of positive and negative information then it is difficult to see how small groups could be seen as positively as the large group.
VsSmith, Eliot: Problem: the model rests on a specific cognitive architecture that may not actually exist. It is also the case that the model is sensitive to sample size in similar ways to Fiedler’s proposal.
>Illusory correlation/Fiedler.

1. Smith, E.R. (1991) ‘Illusory correlation in a simulated exemplar-based memory’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27: 107–23.
2. Berndsen, M., Spears, R., McGarty, C. and van der Pligt, J. (1998) ‘Dynamics of differentiation: Similarity as the precursor and product of stereotype formation’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 1451–63.
3. McConnell, A.R., Sherman, S.J. and Hamilton, D.L. (1994) ‘Illusory correlation in the perception of groups: An extension of the distinctiveness-based account’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67: 414–29.
4. Sherman, J.W., Kruschke, J.K., Sherman, S.J., Percy, E.T., Petrocelli, J.V. and Conrey, F.R. (2009) ‘Attentional processes in stereotype formation: A common model for category accentuation and illusory correlation’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96: 305–23.


Craig McGarty, „Stereotype Formation. Revisiting Hamilton and Gifford’s illusory correlation studies“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications

EconSmith I
Adam Smith
The Theory of Moral Sentiments London 2010

EconSmithV I
Vernon L. Smith
Rationality in Economics: Constructivist and Ecological Forms Cambridge 2009


Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017
Markets Smith Mause I 55f
Market/Adam Smith/SmithVsNeoclassicism/NeoclassicismVsSmith: Smith, as a representative of classical economic theory and its successors, the aspects of market processes, in particular the suitability of markets, were of great importance to contribute to the realisation of individual freedom or to promote the production of innovations. Also unthinkable for the classics would be the neoclassical view of money as a mere "veil" without real effects, since these were very well aware of the real economic consequences of monetary factors. >Money, >Monetarism.
NeoclassicismVsSmith: Neoclassical theory is about the ((s) at least theoretical) attainability of a market equilibrium.
>Neoclassical economics as author, >Neoclassical economics.

EconSmith I
Adam Smith
The Theory of Moral Sentiments London 2010

EconSmithV I
Vernon L. Smith
Rationality in Economics: Constructivist and Ecological Forms Cambridge 2009


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Markets Surowiecki I 149
Markets/SurowieckiVsSmith, Vernon L. /Surowiecki: Smith's laboratory results (1) (See Markets/Smith, Vernon) do not apply to all markets, as they are often a) distorted in real terms, b) there are different markets, e. g. securities markets are structured differently and have to do with more volatile prices. Markets do not even compensate for differences in wealth. Neither Smith's nor Arrow's and Debreu's results indicate whether markets deliver optimal social outcomes.
I 150
However, Smith has shown that market participants - regardless of their level of education and information - can coordinate. They can reach mutually beneficial goals, even if they do not have a clear understanding of what these goals are and what measures are needed to achieve them.
I 314
Stock markets/Surowiecki: in the real economy there are no such phenomena as on the stock market: the price of a television set does not suddenly double overnight and collapses again a few months later. >Stock market.

1. Vernon L. Smith’ Studie über sein erstes Klassenzimmer-Experiment ist »An Experimental Study of Competitive Behavior«, Journal of Political Economy 70/1962, S.111-137. Viele der seither zu diesem Thema über die Jahre von ihm publizierten Aufsätze sind in zwei Bänden gesammelt: Smith, Papers in Experimental Economics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1991); und Smith, Bargaining and Market Behavior (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000).

Surowi I
James Surowiecki
Die Weisheit der Vielen: Warum Gruppen klüger sind als Einzelne und wie wir das kollektive Wissen für unser wirtschaftliches, soziales und politisches Handeln nutzen können München 2005

National Economy Marx Höffe I 364
National Economy/Marx/Höffe: (...) Marx [seeks] to show how a national economy which is designed from the standpoint of the capitalists who own the means of production, among their own assumptions did not achieve its claimed goal. MarxVsSmith, Adam: While Smith, according to the title of his work, promises the "prosperity of nations"(2), in truth, according to Marx, the crass opposite takes place: an impoverishment, eventually impoverishment of the worker.
Profit: The capital utilization aiming at profit increase favors on the one hand the large capital, because it destroys the small capital and seizes the property.
Labor: On the other hand, it leads to an abundance of labor, which pushes the wage below the subsistence level.
Impoverishment: Later, Marx abandoned the idea of absolute impoverishment. He only claims that the wage does not keep pace with the growing wealth of the capital owners (...).
>Adam Smith.

1. K. Marx, Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte (1844) (Pariser Manuskripte)
2. A. Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 1776

Marx I
Karl Marx
Das Kapital, Kritik der politische Ökonomie Berlin 1957


Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016
Political Economy Buchanan Mause I 59
New Political Economy/Buchanan: The term "economic imperialism" could also include the New Political Economy, whose most important representatives were James Buchanan (1919 - 2013), Anthony Downs (born 1930) and Gordon Tullock (1922 - 2014). The aim is to extend theoretical economic analyses to other areas of society and to the study of all human behaviour.
VsClassical Economy/VsSmith: economic and political aspects are not combined as in the classics
but political events are seen exclusively through the eyes of homo oeconomicus. (1)(2)


1. A. Downs, An economic theory of democracy. New York 1957 [dt. 1968: Ökonomische Theorie der Demokratie. Tübingen]
2. J. Buchanan, G. Tullock, The calculus of consent. Ann Arbor 1962.

EconBuchan I
James M. Buchanan
Politics as Public Choice Carmel, IN 2000


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Socialism Marx Höffe I 366
Scientific Socialism/Marx/Höffe: In contrast to Proudhon's socialism, which is debased as "utopian," "petty-bourgeois", and "doctrinaire," Marx is not satisfied with a "utopian interpretation" of the previous national economy. He does indeed adopt Proudhon's guiding goal, the classless society. According to the Communist Party's Manifesto (1848)(1), written together with Engels, the "history of all previous society consists in the history of class struggles," which recalls Hegel's theorem of >master and slave. Religion/Marx/Höffe: astonishingly, [in the manifesto] (...) the religious opposites that dominate at least modern times are not mentioned.
>Religion.
Höffe I 367
According to the eleventh Feuerbach thesis, Marx is convinced of the mission and at the same time convinced of the power of a theory (...). With its help he believes he can achieve his goal, - establishing a classless society - and bring about the necessary path, the revolutionary transformation of the existing society.
Höffe I 368
VsPolitical Economy: "Capital"(3) [rejects] the previous political economy (economics) (...) and develops an alternative. Labor: In one point Marx (...) agrees with his liberal opponents: As with Locke, wages should be based on the amount of work done.
MarxVsSmith, Adam/MarxVsRicardo: Marx accuses his opponents of an unhistorical approach and the extrapolation resulting from it, which is in fact unacceptable: According to Marx, the laws of economic development asserted by Smith and Ricardo are not eternally valid laws of nature. They apply only to the modern, namely capitalist form of economy and society.
>Adam Smith, >David Ricardo.
He concedes that the traditional national economy has enlightened the mechanism of production relations: the connection of private property with the separation of labor and capital, with the division of labor, competition, etc.
But he accuses it of a "fatalistic economy" that does not concern itself with the conditions of the origin of production relations and therefore does not recognize the law of their change. He contrasts this with what is later called historical materialism ("histomat").
Commodity/Money: [Marx] begins with the analysis of commodity and money as the material preconditions and formal elements. He concedes to capital the world-historical task of developing all productive forces of labor. On the other hand, however, it prevents what is indispensable for a truly humane economy: that labor or the worker becomes the subject of social processes.

1. K.Marx und F. Engels, Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, 1848
2. K.Marx und F. Engels, Thesen über Feuerbach, 1845
3. K. Marx Das Kapital Vol. I 1867, Vol. II & II 1885 (= MEW 23-25)

Marx I
Karl Marx
Das Kapital, Kritik der politische Ökonomie Berlin 1957


Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Neutrality Black Vs Neutrality III 84
Neutrality/Science/BlackVsNeutrality/BlackVsValue freedom: if science is considered to be rational in the sense of neutral, it runs the risk of becoming inhuman. It must instead be regarded as a human action.
III 84
Neutrality/Robert L. Heilbroner: (sociologist, NY Times Magazine, 19 Jan 1975 p. 14f.): Brings an example by Adam Smith: Adam Smith: E.g. why would a person with a humanistic background, when facing the choice of seinding one million Chinese to death in order to save his little finger, let the Chinese live? (BlackVsSmith: Actually, why Chinese, why not Scots?) Heilbroner/Black: remains remarkably neutral! He believes that there is "no rational answer" to that! One cannot apply a logical calculus to it. BlackVsHeilbroner: Apparently, he did not read the very differentiated magazine in which he had the opportunity to publish carefully. Could anyone be in doubt about giving a human life for the salvation of a little finger?.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994