Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 8 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Anaphora Kamp Cresswell I 184
Anaphora/Kamp/Heim: Thesis: a discourse section can be interpreted as a "long sentence". HintikkaVsKamp: that is unnatural.
CresswellVsHintikka: pro Kamp. It is only about a semantic ((s) non-syntactic) point of view. On the surface we have different sentences.
Hintikka: Thesis: a theory like that of Kamp/Heim cannot be applied to question-answer games.
CresswellVsHintikka: that does work: E.g.
(14) Here is a bee in the room.
(15) Will it stab me?
I 185
On a certain level one can consider (14) and (15) as a conjunction. >File change semantics, >Prosentential theory, >Conjunction.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Articles Kamp Cresswell I 175
Definite descriptions/Cresswell: so far we have only spoken about undefined descriptions! Undefined descriptions/Russell. Thesis: a man means "at least a man".
Certain descriptions/Russell. Thesis: the man means "this particular man".
Anaphora/HintikkaVsRussell: the tradition has no explanation for the anaphoric use of certain descriptions.
Article/Cresswell: recent attempts to integrate the old linguistic idea into the traditional logic that the indefinite article introduces new objects in the speech while the definite article refers to already introduced entities. This corresponds to:
Article/Kempson: (1975, 111)(1): thesis: definite/indefinite article should be distinguished not semantically but only pragmatically.
Article/old/new/file change semantics/Heim/Cresswell: the distinction between old and new entities in connection with the article is also found in Heim (1983).
I 176
There it leads to the file change semantics/Kamp/Heim: Thesis: as entities in the world the objects are not new, but only within the speech, therefore "files". (Files, "new in the files"). Definiton file/Heim/Cresswell: a file represents facts about objects for the speaker.
>File change semantics,


(1) Ruth M. Kempson (1975): Presupposition and the delimitation of semantics (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Descriptions Kamp Cresswell I 167
Indeterminate description/Kamp/Heim: indeterminate descriptions are not quantifiers, because real quantifiers cannot work beyond sentences, while pronouns can be connected anaphorically with undefined descriptions from earlier sentences. >Quantifiers, >Pronouns, >Anaphora, >Prosentential theory.
Example:
(5) Everyone found a cat and kept it.
(6) It ran away.
Only that in (5) can be anaphorically related to the cat.
Cresswell I 175
Indeterminate description/Russell: conforms with existence quantification: E.g. a man: "at least a man." >Existential quantification.
New Theory/Cresswell: the indefinite article introduces new objects, the specific refers to introduced ones.
I 176
File change semantics/Home: thesis: as entities in the world the objects are not new, but only within the speech, therefore file change ("new in the documents") - File/Kamp/Home: represents facts about objects for the speaker. >File change semantics.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Scope Cresswell I, 179f
Scope/Cresswell: E.g. everyone loves someone: a) everyone is such that someone is so that the former loves the second
b) someone - someone is so that everyone is so that he, the second named, loves him, the former - game theoretical semantics/CresswellVsHintikka: has brought nothing new, what Kamp/Heim did not already have - game theory: sequence of choice.
>Hans Kamp, >Irene Heim, >File change semantics, >Game-theorical semantics.
II 48
Scope/description/propositional attitudes/Cresswell: sentences about propositional attitudes can always give descriptions a wide range. That is, to make them rigid. >Narrow/Wide, >Rigidity.
II 126
He*/scope/Cresswell: wide scope: then it can also be interpreted as "I". Narrow scope: allows "he", "she" or "it".
Gods-example/solution/Cresswell:> - speaker index.
>Two omniscient Gods/Cresswell, more authors on >"Two omniscient Gods".
II 126
"Now"/scope/Cresswell: analog to the case of "I". Narrow scope: here "now" becomes "then".
"Here"/Cresswell: Problem: that "people coordinates" could lead to an infinite list - because of the context dependency.
CresswellVs: instead I use (Cresswell, 1973a(1), pp. 110-119.) properties of utterances.
II 143
Hob/Cob/Nob-Example/Geach/Cresswell: (Geach 1957(2), 628): Cresswell: needs a quantifier, which is simultaneously inside and outside the scope of the attitude-verb. - Solution/Hill/Kraut: intensional objects as surrogates for individuals and a further quantifier. >Cob/Hob/Nob-case.
II 150
Names/scope/Cresswell: normally names have a wider reach than modal operators - this is the "modal objection" VsKripke. KripkeVsVs: (Kripke, 1972(3), p. 279.)


1. Cresswell, M. J. (1973). Logics and Languages. London: Methuen.
2. Geach, P. (1957). Mental Acts. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
3. Kripke S. A. (1972). Naming and Necessity, in: Davidson/Harmann
(eds.) (1972), 253-355

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

Semantics Heim Cresswell I 163
Semantics/Hans Kamp/Irene Heim/Cresswell: (Kamp 1983(1), Heim 1983(2), independent of each other):
1. Thesis:
Facts about descriptions, in particular their anaphoric use, require a representation level between surface form and logical form (surface/deep structure). 2. Thesis:
Sentence meaning/Kamp/Heim: the sentence meaning is no longer given by the truth conditions!
Description/CresswellVsHintikka/CresswellVsKamp/CresswellVsHeim: although there is a new view in terms of descriptions (among others, by Lewis 1975)(3), we do not need a new kind of semantic theory.
Λ-categorial language/Cresswell: in it we can formulate the semantic insights of Kamp/Heim.
S: syntactic category: the syntactic category is either simple or complex.
Simple:
Syntactic category 0: sentence
Syntactic category 1: name
Complex syntactic category: form .
>Descriptions, >File change semantics, >Prosentential theory, >Deep structure.

1. Kamp, H. & Rohrer, C. (1983): Tense in texts. Meaning, use and interpretation of language 250, 269.
2. Heim, I. (1983): Formal Semantics - the Essential Readings. In: P. Portner & B. H. Partee (eds.), Blackwell. pp. 249-260.
3. Lewis, D. (1975a): Adverbs of Quantification. In: Edward L. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics of Natural Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–15.

Heim I
Irene Heim
The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases London 1988

Heim I
I. Heim
Semantics in Generative Grammar Oxford 1997


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Semantics Kamp Cresswell I 163
Semantics/Hans Kamp/Irene Heim/Cresswell: (Kamp 1983(1), Heim 1983(2), independent of each other):
1. Thesis:
Facts about descriptions, in particular their anaphoric use, require a representation level between surface form and logical form (surface/deep structure). 2. Thesis:
Sentence meaning/Kamp/Heim: the sentence meaning is no longer given by the truth conditions!
Description/CresswellVsHintikka/CresswellVsKamp/CresswellVsHeim: although there is a new view in terms of descriptions (among others, by Lewis 1975)(3), we do not need a new kind of semantic theory.
Λ-categorial language/Cresswell: in it we can formulate the semantic insights of Kamp/Heim.
S: syntactic category: the syntactic category is either simple or complex.
Simple:
Syntactic category 0: sentence
Syntactic category 1: name
Complex syntactic category: form .

>Descriptions, >File change semantics, >Prosentential theory, >Deep structure.


1. Kamp, H. & Rohrer, C. (1983): Tense in texts. Meaning, use and interpretation of language 250, 269.
2. Heim, I. (1983): Formal Semantics - the Essential Readings. In: P. Portner & B. H. Partee (eds.), Blackwell. pp. 249-260.
3. Lewis, D. (1975a): Adverbs of Quantification. In: Edward L. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics of Natural Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–15.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Sentences Kamp Cresswell I 184
Discourse/text/Kamp/Heim: a discourse section can be considered a "long sentence". Cresswell per.
HintikkaVs.
>File change semantics, >Prosentential theory.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984
Terminology Kamp Cresswell I 116
Discourse Representation Semantics/descriptions/Irene Heim/Hans Kamp/Cresswell: discourse representation semantics is also called "file change" semantics. ("Change in the file" see below). CresswellVs: normal truth-conditional semantics is sufficient when the defined and undefined descriptions are classified into some modified syntactic categories. Solution: λ-categorial language.
>Lambda calculus, >Lambda abstraction, >File change semantics.

Kamp I
Kamp
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)


Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Discourse Representation Partee Vs Discourse Representation Klaus von Heusinger, Eselssätze und ihre Pferdefüsse, Uni Konstanz Section Linguistics Working Paper 64; 1994
I 21
Discourse Representation/Discourse Representation Theories/DRT//File Change Semantics/FCS/Heim/Kamp/Heusinger: (Heim 1982, 1983, Kamp (1981, with Reyle: 1993): Thesis the analysis should go beyond the individual sentence. Anaphora/DRT/FCS/Heim/Kamp/Heusinger: should be able to go beyond the boundaries of sentences. NP: are not quantifier expressions, but precisely anaphorical. They can also refer to "virtual" objects. File/Terminology/Heim/Heusinger: the possibly virtual objects of discourse. Discourse Reference/Terminology/Karttunen: like Heim's files. I 22 Anaphora: anaphoric relations take place between files and certain operators can the bind files or give them a certain "lifetime". Discourse Representation/Heusinger: is displayed on a model only in the model-theoretic interpretation. Def Meaning/FCS/DRT/Heim/Kamp/Heusinger: is a dynamic concept here, it is not the truth condition of sentences, but the information-changing potential of sentences. (Therefore terminology: file change) NP: new: they are discourse references here (with possibly changing correspondences) and more referential than quantifying. Referential/Heusinger: referring to particular properties. Quantifying/Heusinger/(s): not referring to properties.
I 23
Discourse Representation Theory/Heusinger: Solution: there is no anaphora paradox (because NP, like pronouns, are interpreted as a discourse reference) and the problem of the wide range of the existential quantifier is resolved. Problem/VsDiscourse Representation Theories: the problem of compositionality remains. Problem: the texts can then only obtain a truth value in their entirety. Chrysipp Sentences/Heusinger: New: the conditional is represented not as a material implication, but as unselective all-quantification over cases in the sense of Lewis (1975) Adverbs of Quantification. I 24 Proportion Paradox/Partee/ParteeVsHeim/ParteeVsDiscourse Representation Theory/Donkey Sentence/Heusinger:(Partee 1984): Problem (40) can only be represented as (40a), but that becomes incorrect if out of 6 farmers who each have a donkey, five beat theirs, while the sixth farmer has 10 donkeys, all of which he treats well. Problem: the quantification over cases only considers farmer-donkey pairs. I 25 Dynamic Logic/Groenendijk/Stokhof/Dekker/Heusinger: (Groenendijk & Stokhof 1991, Dekker 1993): VsDiscourse Representation Theory: departs from a dynamic concept of meaning, like this one, which is not incorporated in the representation, but is coded in a new interpretation of the well-known logical inventory. Sentence meaning: no longer truth conditions, but contribution to the change of the context or information. Relevant information: is that on the variable assignment. Sentence meaning: is then the relation between two variable assignments. Discourse references: do not exist here. Dynamic Logic/Heusinger: Inspired by computer languages. I 42
Epsilon AnalysisVsDiscourse Representation/VsHeim/VsKamp/Heusinger: here, NP are not introduced as discourse referents on the additional semantic level of the discourse representation structure, but directly refer to selected objects of the model according to the principle of selection.

Part I
B. Partee
Mathematical Methods in Linguistics (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy) New York 1990

The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 theses of the more related field of specialization.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Description Cresswell, M.J. I 175
Certain Descriptions/Cresswell: so far we have only talked about indefinite ones! Indefinite Description/Russell: Thesis: a man means "at least a man".
Certain Description/Russell: Thesis: the man means "this particular man".
Anaphora/HintikkaVsRussell: tradition has no explanation for the anaphoric use of certain descriptions.
Article/Cresswell: more recent attempts: to incorporate the old linguistic idea into traditional logic, that the indefinite article introduces new objects into speech, while the definite article refers to already introduced entities. This corresponds to:
Article/Kempson: (1975, 111): Thesis: definite/indefinite articles should not be distinguished semantically, but only pragmatically.
Old/new/article/file change semantics/Heim/Cresswell: the distinction between old and new entities in connection with the article can also be found in Heim (1983).
I 176
There it leads to file change semantics/Kamp/Heim: Thesis: as entities in the world, the objects are not new, but only within the speech, hence "files". ("files", "new in the files"). Def File/Heim/Cresswell: represents facts about objects for the speaker.
File Change Kamp, H. Cresswell I 167
Truth Condition/Heim/Cresswell: Thesis: we could then say that the individual conjuncts have a potential to change their truth condition. ((s) not truth values?). Cresswell: the "dynamic" is just a metaphor.
"File semantics"/file change-semantics/existence quantifier/Kamp/Heim: here the existence quantifier is part of the semantic framework.
I 175
Old/new/article/file change semantics/Heim/Cresswell: the distinction between old and new entities in connection with the article can also be found in Heim (1983).
I 176
There it leads to file change semantics/Kamp/Heim: thesis: as entities in the world, the objects are not new, but only within the speech, hence "files". ("files", "new in the files"). Def file/Heim/Cresswell: represents facts about objects for the speaker.

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984