Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Scope Lewis IV 30
Scope/Lewis: If a quantifier is beyond the reach of the modal operator (MO), we have to limit its object area to the actual world - If modal operators occur within modal operators, we have to start working from the outside to the inside. ---
IV 33
Scope/De re/de dicto/Lewis: a) narrow scope: (only in actual world): here the modal operator is applied to the already closed sentence. - E.g. every possible world contains one single A so that the sentence ya is true in every possible world - de dicto - this is referentially opaque. - The translation of the apparent Leibnizian identity is invalid. - b) broad scope: here the modal operator is applied to an open sentence to form a new modal sentence f, and the attribute that is expressed by Nf is preceded by the real thing -That is de re - and is referentially transparent. - The translation of the apparent Leibnizian identity is valid here. ---
IV 34
Medium scope/Lewis: for each description there are three scopes. Also a medium one: E.g. NM(h = z) - broad scope: de re, transparent: says that the attribute expressed by f is essential and is denoted by z.

Lewis I
David K. Lewis
Die Identität von Körper und Geist Frankfurt 1989

Lewis I (a)
David K. Lewis
An Argument for the Identity Theory, in: Journal of Philosophy 63 (1966)
In
Die Identität von Körper und Geist, Frankfurt/M. 1989

Lewis I (b)
David K. Lewis
Psychophysical and Theoretical Identifications, in: Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1972)
In
Die Identität von Körper und Geist, Frankfurt/M. 1989

Lewis I (c)
David K. Lewis
Mad Pain and Martian Pain, Readings in Philosophy of Psychology, Vol. 1, Ned Block (ed.) Harvard University Press, 1980
In
Die Identität von Körper und Geist, Frankfurt/M. 1989

Lewis II
David K. Lewis
"Languages and Language", in: K. Gunderson (Ed.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. VII, Language, Mind, and Knowledge, Minneapolis 1975, pp. 3-35
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, Georg Meggle Frankfurt/M. 1979

Lewis IV
David K. Lewis
Philosophical Papers Bd I New York Oxford 1983

Lewis V
David K. Lewis
Philosophical Papers Bd II New York Oxford 1986

Lewis VI
David K. Lewis
Convention. A Philosophical Study, Cambridge/MA 1969
German Edition:
Konventionen Berlin 1975

LewisCl
Clarence Irving Lewis
Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis Stanford 1970

LewisCl I
Clarence Irving Lewis
Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Dover Books on Western Philosophy) 1991

Scope Hintikka II 166
Scope/HintikkaVsRussell: he did not know that there is a third possibility for the scope of a quantifier ((s) > "medium scope"/Kripke).
(4) ~ (Ex)[A(x) & (y)(A(y) > y = x) & George IV knew that (Scott = x)].

Hintikka I
Jaakko Hintikka
Merrill B. Hintikka
Investigating Wittgenstein
German Edition:
Untersuchungen zu Wittgenstein Frankfurt 1996

Hintikka II
Jaakko Hintikka
Merrill B. Hintikka
The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic Dordrecht 1989