Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Communication Evans Avramides I 16 f
Communication/Evans/McDowell/Avramides: EvansVsGrice/McDowellVsGrice: in communication, there is no "ratiocinatio" - Neither implicitly nor later in a rational reconstruction.
Evans I 324
Speaker's reference/Evans: Communication may succeed even if the speaker is misrepresenting because the listeners have formed an opinion about him.

G. Evans/J. McDowell
Truth and Meaning Oxford 1977

Evans I
Gareth Evans
"The Causal Theory of Names", in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. Vol. 47 (1973) 187-208
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf Frankfurt/M. 1993

Evans II
Gareth Evans
"Semantic Structure and Logical Form"
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell Oxford 1976

Evans III
G. Evans
The Varieties of Reference (Clarendon Paperbacks) Oxford 1989

Avr I
A. Avramides
Meaning and Mind Boston 1989
Principles Leibniz Holz I 47
Principle/Proof/Leibniz: from the principles of identity and experience (manifoldness is perceived by me) can be proved, 1. that a proof of it is impossible,
2. that all other sentences depend on it. (If they are not true, there is no knowledge at all).
I 47
Identity Principle/Leibniz: the identity principle is not derived from the senses, but is set with the senses. ---
Holz I 56
Reflexive principles/Leibniz: 1. the assumption that the syllogism is valid,
2. that the contradiction is paradoxical.
I 57
This is, however, formal and does not yet lead to a substantive positing of material truth. ---
Holz I 66
Truths of Reason/Leibniz: here there are two great principles: 1. the principle of non-contradiction
2. the principle of determining reason. (Sufficient reason).
I 67
"Although these determinant reasons are generally not sufficiently known, we still see that they are present." Insight into the existence of the reason is a priori, for the reason is nothing other than the inesse of the determining factor in the corresponding fact. (> Ratiocinatio: reduction to identical sentences).

Lei II
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998

Holz I
Hans Heinz Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992

Holz II
Hans Heinz Holz
Descartes Frankfurt/M. 1994
Terminology Leibniz Holz I 12f
Monadology/Monads/Leibniz: nobody will take monadology today simply as an explanatory scheme, but as a model response to possible problems that arise in the question of the unity of the manifoldness and the overall context. ---
Holz I 24
Pre-stabilized harmony/Leibniz: this reciprocal relation, regulated in every substance of the world from the beginning, which produces what we call its intercourse, and which alone constitutes the union of soul and body. "The hypothesis is quite possible." (LeibnizVsNewton: Newton: "hypotheses non fingo").
"It is a wonderful idea of the harmony of the universe and the perfection of the works of God."
Holz I 48
Ratiocinatio/Leibniz: Ratiocinato is building a theory of argumentation chains about an object. Obtaining true sentences. ---
Holz I 49
Monad/Leibniz/Holz: title for the unity of the substantial and the structural aspect of being, as substance and concept of structure in one. The reason for unity is the form determinateness of its all-round connection, not the linearity of a sequence or series. To this extent, the existence reason of the world (as the totality of the connection) is not in the world, but it conditions it as a world. ---
Holz I 109
Windowlessness/Monad/Leibniz: states that in metaphysical severity changes of a substance result only from internal processes,... ---
I 110
...because they alone are the manifestations of the original force as vis activa and their self-restraint as vis passiva. (No connection to Maturana). There is no means of explaining how a monad could be altered by any other creature, since nothing can be transferred into it, nor can there be any inner movement in it, as can be done in composed things, where there are changes between parts .
"The monads have no windows through which anything could enter or get out of them." (KS 441).
I 113
Immanence/Leibniz: immanence of the substance in the world - inherent: the world in the individual substance. ---
Holz I 116
Monad/Leibniz: Expressing that substance is only a structural substance. (Determined by the whole of the universe). Soul/Leibniz: how the soul forms the structural unity of its body and the latter disintegrates when the soul escapes, so the monad is the unit-forming structure of the material body.
I 117
Monads/Leibniz: they must be real units "animated bodies" (not just mathematical points). Solution: their nature must be in force.
But as the soul may not be used to provide information on details of the animal organism,...
I 118
...we must assume the monads as the original forces.

Lei II
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998

Holz I
Hans Heinz Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992

Holz II
Hans Heinz Holz
Descartes Frankfurt/M. 1994