Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Gender Roles Engels Brocker I 299
Gender roles/Engels: In his book The Origin of the Family (1), Engels sketches the establishment of gender domination, as follows: For historical materialism, the human exists as a social-historical being in the metabolism with nature. The relationship between the sexes must therefore be explained on the basis of the state of development of production conditions and, above all, of technical means of production. For Engels, the transition from communal to private property is the pivotal point for an explanation of male gender domination. BeauvoirVsEngels: two questions remain unanswered: 1. Why can the institution of private property prevail? 2. Why does this lead to the oppression of women? According to Beauvoir, Engels presupposes the benefit-calculating homo oeconomicus instead of explaining it. Moreover, the motive for mastery through greed and expansionism is not sufficiently explained.
Brocker I 300
Solution/Beauvoir: One has to accept an imperialist human consciousness that wants to achieve its sovereignty objectively. (2) To this end, the "category of the other" must be introduced. (2)



1. Friedrich Engels, Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staats, Marx/Engels Werke 21, S. 25–173
2. Simone de Beauvoir, Le deuxième sexe, Paris 1949. Dt.: Simone de Beauvoir, Das andere Geschlecht. Sitte und Sexus der Frau, Reinbek 2005 (zuerst 1951), S. 82.


Friederike Kuster, „Simone de Beauvoir, Das andere Geschlecht (1949)“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

EconEngels I
Friedrich Engels
Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staats


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Psychoanalysis Beauvoir Brocker I 298
Psychoanalysis/Beauvoir: The fact that the human body is fundamentally embedded in a culturally symbolic context leads to an examination of classical psychoanalysis and the gender model, as Freud derives this from the positioning of the male and female individual in the Oedipus complex. BeauvoirVsFreud: What Freud describes as a universal psychological mechanism, is understood by Beauvoir as a theory of socialization that traces a historically specific inculturation of the sexes. The superiority of the Father and the value of the phallus are social facts in a patriarchal society. Thus, the psychoanalytic approach shifts "inwards", as it were, what "outwards" is; it maps social relationships to psychic structures and derives a regularity from a description.
Brocker I 299
Beauvoir: (Context: the anatomical difference of the human sexes): Of course, anatomy is not already destiny, for "only within the situation grasped in its totality, anatomical privilege establishes a human one. Psychoanalysis can only find its truth in a historical context" (1). See BeauvoirVsEngels.

1. Simone de Beauvoir, Le deuxième sexe, Paris 1949. Dt.: Simone de Beauvoir, Das andere Geschlecht. Sitte und Sexus der Frau, Reinbek 2005 (zuerst 1951), S. 73.


Friederike Kuster, „Simone de Beauvoir, Das andere Geschlecht (1949)“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018