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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Social Cognition Shoda Corr I 475
Social Cognition/Shoda/Smith: Social cognitive theory’s concept of reciprocal determinism (Bandura 1986)(1) provides a useful framework for analysing bidirectional causal interactions involving person, environment and behaviour. VsBandura: Mischel and Shoda’s (1995)(2) cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) fleshed out the ‘person’ portion of the triadic framework by specifying important person variables and the processing dynamics that create a stable personality structure capable of producing situation-behaviour regularities.
The CAPS model was inspired in part by recent information-processing, connectionist and neural network models in areas such as perception, social cognition and cognitive neuroscience (Read and Miller 1998(3); Rumelhart and McClelland 1986)(4). >Neural Networks/Rumelhart.
Individuals differ in the chronic accessibility of network elements, that is, the ease with which the particular cognitive-affective units become activated (Higgins 1990)(5). They also differ in the levels of activation that occur in response to
(a) elements of the ‘psychological situation’ that is being processed, and
(b) the activity of other associated units, which can stimulate, inhibit or exert no influence on the unit.
Solution: Mischel and Shoda’s person variables, or ‘cognitive-affective units’ include the person’s encoding (i.e., ‘construal’ or interpretation) of the self and of situations, expectancies (including stimulus-stimulus, response-outcome and self-efficacy expectancies), enduring goals and values, affective states and dis-positions, and competencies and self-regulation capabilities. >Self-Regulation.
In this model, therefore, invariance resides not at the situation-behavioural level, but at the level of internal processing dynamics. >Control processes/Shoda/Smith.

1. Bandura, A. 1986. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
2. Mischel, W. and Shoda, Y. 1995. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure, Psychological Review 102: 246–68
3. Read, S. J. and Miller, L. C. (eds.) 1998.Connectionist and PDP models of social reasoning and social behaviour. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
4. Rumelhart, D.E. and McClelland, J.L. 1986.Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vols. I and II. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
5. Higgins, E. T. 1990. Personality, social psychology, and person-situation relations: stand-ards and knowledge activation as a common language, in L. A. Pervin (ed.), Handbook of personality: theory and research, pp. 301–38. New York: Guilford Press

Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda, “Personality as a cognitive-affective processing system“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018