Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

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The author or concept searched is found in the following 5 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Causality Bryant Slater I 133
Causality/dyslexia/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1): in order to decide whether the connection between rhyming and alliteration skills and progress in reading was causal, two research methods need[ed] to be combined. A longitudinal approach, in which a large sample of children was followed over time to see whether early rhyme and alliteration skills could determine progress in reading and spelling, had to be combined with a training study. If sound categorization was indeed important for learning to read and to spell, then children who received intensive training in sound categorization should show gains in reading and spelling in comparison to children who did not receive such training. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. This combination hat not been used in studies of reading development before.
Slater I 135
Bradley and Bryant (1983) concluded that they had shown a causal link between categorizing sounds and learning to read. They speculated that experiences at home, before the children went to school, might underlie individual differences in rhyming and alliteration skills at school entry.
Slater I 139/140
Causality/VsBradley/VsBryant: it is the question whether Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(1) study really established a causal connection between categorizing sounds and learning to read. Even though the study used only pre-reading children (as measured by the Schonell standardized test), some critics have argued that most children who grow up in literate Western societies have some letter knowledge before entering school, for example being able to print their own name and being aware of popular logos and printed signs (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 2004)(2).

1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Dyslexia Bryant Slater I 133
Dyslexia/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1): in order to decide whether the connection between rhyming and alliteration skills and progress in reading was causal, two research methods need[ed] to be combined. A longitudinal approach, in which a large sample of children was followed over time to see whether early rhyme and alliteration skills could determine progress in reading and spelling, had to be combined with a training study. If sound categorization was indeed important for learning to read and to spell, then children who received intensive training in sound categorization should show gains in reading and spelling in comparison to children who did not receive such training. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. This combination hat not been used in studies of reading development before.
Slater I 135
Bradley and Bryant (1983) concluded that they had shown a causal link between categorizing sounds and learning to read. They speculated that experiences at home, before the children went to school, might underlie individual differences in rhyming and alliteration skills at school entry.
Slater I 139/140
Causality/VsBradley/VsBryant: it is the question whether Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(1) study really established a causal connection between categorizing sounds and learning to read. Even though the study used only pre-reading children (as measured by the Schonell standardized test), some critics have argued that most children who grow up in literate Western societies have some letter knowledge before entering school, for example being able to print their own name and being aware of popular logos and printed signs (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 2004)(2).

1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Reading Acquisition Bryant Slater I 132
Reading Acquisition/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1) provided evidence for a causal link between categorizing words on the basis of their constituent sounds and learning to read and to spell. This demonstration led to intensive investigation of the role of “phonological awareness” (the ability to detect and manipulate the component sounds in words) in literacy development across languages, and to the “phonological deficit” theory of developmental dyslexia. >Reading acquisition/Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 133
Bradley and Bryant (1978)(2) established, that children with reading difficulties were much poorer in deciding whether words rhymed with each other or whether words began with the same sound. >Causality/Bradley/Bryant. The impact of Bradley and Bryant’s work has been immense. >Reading acquisition Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 134
Bradley and Bryant (1983) reported high and significant time-lagged correlations between initial sound categorization scores and children’s later reading and spelling performance.
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(3). Another criticism has been that the oddity task is not an ideal measure of phonological awareness. Worries have been expressed about the load it may place on phonological memory (Snowling, Hulme, Smith & Thomas, 1994)(4), about its validity and reliability as a psychometric measure (Macmillan, 2002)(5), and about whether it is really a measure of rhyme and alliteration awareness or a measure of phoneme awareness (in the rhyme versions of the task, the odd word out is only one phoneme different). In fact, Snowling et al. (1994)(4) found that sound categorization abilities did not depend on memory.


1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746–747.
3. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.
4. Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., Smith, A., & Thomas, J. (1994). The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children’s sound categorization performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 160–180.
5. Macmillan, B. M. (2002). Rhyme and reading: A critical review of the research methodology. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 4–42.


Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Reading Acquisition Bradley Slater I 132
Reading Acquisition/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1) provided evidence for a causal link between categorizing words on the basis of their constituent sounds and learning to read and to spell. This demonstration led to intensive investigation of the role of “phonological awareness” (the ability to detect and manipulate the component sounds in words) in literacy development across languages, and to the “phonological deficit” theory of developmental dyslexia. >Reading acquisition/Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 133
Bradley and Bryant (1978)(2) established, that children with reading difficulties were much poorer in deciding whether words rhymed with each other or whether words began with the same sound. >Causality/Bradley/Bryant. The impact of Bradley and Bryant’s work has been immense. >Reading acquisition Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 134
Bradley and Bryant (1983) reported high and significant time-lagged correlations between initial sound categorization scores and children’s later reading and spelling performance.
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(3). Another criticism has been that the oddity task is not an ideal measure of phonological awareness. Worries have been expressed about the load it may place on phonological memory (Snowling, Hulme, Smith & Thomas, 1994)(4), about its validity and reliability as a psychometric measure (Macmillan, 2002)(5), and about whether it is really a measure of rhyme and alliteration awareness or a measure of phoneme awareness (in the rhyme versions of the task, the odd word out is only one phoneme different). In fact, Snowling et al. (1994)(4) found that sound categorization abilities did not depend on memory.


1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746–747.
3. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.
4. Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., Smith, A., & Thomas, J. (1994). The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children’s sound categorization performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 160–180.
5. Macmillan, B. M. (2002). Rhyme and reading: A critical review of the research methodology. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 4–42.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Brad I
F. H. Bradley
Essays on Truth and Reality (1914) Ithaca 2009


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Reading Acquisition Educational Psychology Slater I 136
Reading acquisition/dyslexia/educational psychology: Regarding education, there is ongoing debate about the extent to which rhyme and alliteration should have a place in the early reading curriculum (e.g., Johnston & Watson, 2004)(1). This goes back to the Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(2) study. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. About how best to link oral language skills to reading and spelling instruction (e.g., Wyse & Goswami, 2008)(3), about potential social class differences in school entry skills in rhyme and alliteration (e.g., Raz & Bryant, 2000)(4), and about how to foster optimal home literacy environments before a child even enters school (e.g., Whitehurst et al., 1994)(5).
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(6).


1. Johnston, R., & Watson, J. (2004). Accelerating the development of reading, spelling and phonemic awareness skills in initial readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 327–357.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
3. Wyse, D., & Goswami, U. (2008). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading. British Journal of Educational Research, 34, 691–710.
4. Raz, I. S., & Bryant, P. (1990). Social background, phonological awareness and children’s reading. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 209–225.
5. Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D. S., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30, 679–689.
6. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.


Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012