Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Entry
Reference
Grammar Nietzsche Ries II 35
Grammar/On Truth and Lies in the Nonmoral Sense/Nietzsche: pre-drawn relation of "accidental" predicate and "underlying" subject: fiction. This has made the rule of madness irrevocable. >Predication, >Sentence, >Fiction.
Ries II 75
Grammar/Beyond Good and Evil/Nietzsche: Subject formation suggests real entities. Value judgements and statements of reality appear identical in their linguistic form. Terms are linked to attributes. Thus philosophy believes that it has made the real properties of things visible. ---
Danto III 209
Language/Grammar/Nietzsche/Danto: E. g. humility: is not an achievement of the weak but their nature, just as brutality is not a crime but the nature of the strong. Danto: something similar had set up thrasymachos in Politeia: he trivialized his definition of justice as acting in the interests of the stronger party. Analogously, a mathematician is not a mathematician when he makes a mistake.
DantoVsThrasymachos/DantoVsNietzsche: both have stumbled upon the grammar: they have elevated a triviality of logic to a metaphysics of morality.
NietzscheVsThrasymachos/Danto: Nevertheless, however Nietzsche is more subtle than Thrasymachos: for Nietzsche, the world consists in a way more of pulsations than pulsating objects. But pulsation cannot pulsate, so to speak, only objects can pulsate.
>Justice/Thrasymachus, >Justice/Nietzsche.
Danto III 210
Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche knew that it would be difficult to come up with a language for all of this - a language that I think is made up of verbs and adverbs, but not of nouns and adjectives.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Justice Thrasymachus Taureck I 71
Justice/ThrasymachusVsSkorates: (in Plato, Republic): Thrasymachos attacks Socrates's conversation. Playful modesty, is supposed to deceive the conversation partner.
He also introduces arguments against opponents who had long since considered them.
I 73
Def justice/Thrasymachus: The justice is nothing else but conducive to the strongest.
I 74
Justice/SocratesVsThrasymachos: the ruling might be deceived in what is the most conducive.
I 76
Justice/Thrasymachus: if the justly is a foreign good, it includes the injustice of those who possess it.
I 77
The just ones are the fools. The justice is everywhere worse off than the unrighteous. Thrasymachus was the contemporary of the murderous war between Athens and Sparta.
I 78
On a small scale, injustice is an evil and is punished. On the whole, it is the hallmark of leadership. It is conceivable that Thrasymachus was distorted by Plato as a horror image.
Popper calls him a "political desperado of the worst sort". (PopperVsThrasymachus).
>Plato, >Popper, >State, >Governance, >Laws, >Jurisprudence, >Legislation.


Taureck I
B. H.F. Taureck
Die Sophisten Hamburg 1995
Language Nietzsche Ries II 35
Language/On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense/Nietzsche: Seduction by Language: makes the deception of intellectual judgement performance appear as a natural context. >Predication, >Sentence, >Fiction.
Ries II 86
Language/Twilight of the Idols/Nietzsche:"coarse fetish being": produces reason prejudices: subject, causality and substance. ---
Danto III 51
Language/thinking/order/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche draws his pessimistic conclusions from his epistemological analysis (like B. Russell later): according to them, our perceptions cannot be similar to their causes, so that the language we use (...) does not really describe the world. Order/Nietzsche/Danto: At this point Nietzsche assumes that there could be an order or structure in the world which we are not able to comprehend.
Danto III 107
Language/Nietzsche/Danto: There is a philosophical mythology hidden in language, which breaks out every moment, however cautious one may be otherwise.(1)
Danto III 209
Language/Grammar/Nietzsche/Danto: E. g. humility: is not an achievement of the weak, but their nature, just as brutality is not a crime but the nature of the strong. Danto: Thrasymachos had set up something similar in Politeia: he trivialized his definition of justice as acting in the interests of the stronger party. Analogously, a mathematician is not a mathematician when he makes a mistake.
DantoVsThrasymachos/DantoVsNietzsche: both stumbled upon grammar: they raised a triviality of logic to a metaphysics of morality.
NietzscheVsThrasymachos/Danto: Nevertheless, Nietzsche is more subtle than Thrasymachos: for Nietzsche, the world consists in a way more of pulsations than pulsating objects. Pulsation, however, cannot pulsate, so to speak, only objects can do that.
>Justice/Thrasymachus, >Justice/Nietzsche.
Danto III 210
Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche knew that it would be difficult to come up with a language for all of this - a language that I think is made up of verbs and adverbs, but not nouns and adjectives.

1. F. Nietzsche: Der Wanderer und seine Schatten, KGW IV, 3. p. 215.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Metaphysics Nietzsche Adorno XII 136
Metaphysics/Nietzsche/Adorno: Nietzsche has shown or believed to show that (...) the surface of the categories assigned to a sensual life of any sense, according to the measure of his own metaphysics, i. e. a metaphysics of the very living, are deeper than what this surface denies and only insists on the hidden, but this is due that if one wanted to insist on it, it would transform into in ideology. For example Carmen/Nietzsche: be deeper than Wagner's "Ring".
Adorno: in its essential surface being, in its essential sensual being, certain mythical behaviours are met. Nietzsche understands this as more appropriate than oppposed to the Wagnerian, where the myths become a kind of back world or latent meaning.
>Music/Nietzsche.
XII 137
Content/Nietzsche/Adorno: the point of Nietzsche's philosophy is to a certain extent that the surface, i. e. the immediate, passionate, sensual and manifesting life itself is precisely the content. Cf. >Aesthetics/Adorno.
---
Ries II 46
Transcendental/"ideal things"/Nietzsche: philosophy, religion, art, morality are all "higher lies", because they are traced back to their origin in the lower, all too human. >Transcendentals.
NietzscheVsMetaphysics: Insignificance is given illusory meaning.
Ries II 77
Metaphysics/Morality/Beyond Good and Evil(1)/Nietzsche: The problem of legitimacy: in the previous "Science of Morality" the problem of morality itself was still missing! The suspicion that there is something problematic here.
Ries II 78
The occidental metaphysical contrast between God and devil is lost. Thus also the basis for a metaphysically founded morality of the "good in itself". >God/Nietzsche.
Ries II 87
Metaphysics/Twilight of the Idols/Nietzsche: the entire decay history of Western metaphysics is recounted by Nietzsche on a single sheet of paper: how the true world finally became a fable. History of an error.
Ries II 88
Metaphysics/Twilight of the Idols/Nietzsche: Development: Plato: Spatial model of the truth relations: "here" and "there" are replaced by the temporal determination "now" and "then". Temporalization of metaphysics through Christianity, decaying platonism.
Ries II 89
Kant/Twilight of the Idols/Nietzsche: Kant makes God and the "true world" unattainable, because it cannot be proven. >Kant/Nietzsche.

1. F. Nietzsche, Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2.
---
Danto III 210
Metaphysics/Morality Theory/Nietzsche/Danto: There is a complex connection between Nietzsche's moral theory and metaphysics: For example, if a falcon behaves like a lamb, it is - according to this theory - a lamb, because a lamb is what a lamb does. This is how the strong ones behave under all circumstances. >Morality/Nietzsche.
Language/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche knew that it would be difficult to come up with a language for all this - a language that I think is made up of verbs and adverbs, but not of nouns and adjectives.
>Language/Nietzsche.
Danto III 209
Danto: Thrasymachos had set up something similar in Politeia: he trivialized his definition of justice as acting in the interests of the stronger party. Analogously, a mathematician is not a mathematician when he makes a mistake. >Justice/Thrasymachus.
DantoVsThrasymachos/DantoVsNietzsche: both stumbled upon grammar: they raised a triviality of logic to a metaphysics of morality.
NietzscheVsThrasymachos/Danto: Nevertheless, Nietzsche is more subtle than Thrasymachos: for Nietzsche, the world consists in a way more of pulsations than pulsating objects. Pulsation, however, cannot pulsate, so to speak, only objects can do that.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


A I
Th. W. Adorno
Max Horkheimer
Dialektik der Aufklärung Frankfurt 1978

A II
Theodor W. Adorno
Negative Dialektik Frankfurt/M. 2000

A III
Theodor W. Adorno
Ästhetische Theorie Frankfurt/M. 1973

A IV
Theodor W. Adorno
Minima Moralia Frankfurt/M. 2003

A V
Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophie der neuen Musik Frankfurt/M. 1995

A VI
Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften, Band 5: Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistheorie. Drei Studien zu Hegel Frankfurt/M. 1071

A VII
Theodor W. Adorno
Noten zur Literatur (I - IV) Frankfurt/M. 2002

A VIII
Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 2: Kierkegaard. Konstruktion des Ästhetischen Frankfurt/M. 2003

A IX
Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 8: Soziologische Schriften I Frankfurt/M. 2003

A XI
Theodor W. Adorno
Über Walter Benjamin Frankfurt/M. 1990

A XII
Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 1 Frankfurt/M. 1973

A XIII
Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 2 Frankfurt/M. 1974

Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Psychology Nietzsche Ries II 79
Psychology/Resentment/On the Genealogy of Morality/Nietzsche: Basic concept of the Psychology of Christianity. Explains how the hierarchy of power given by nature could turn into the rule of the powerless.
1. F. Nietzsche Genealogie der Moral, VI. 2.
---
Danto III 130
Psychology/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche considered himself a born psychologist. DantoVsNietzsche: in his thinking was a whole lot of circular arguments. Our psychological theories are part of our perspective, but our perspective must be explained by psychic phenomena that are part of it. Our moral attitudes are jointly responsible for our (...) perspectives. Psychology, however, is invoked to explain why we take our moral perspectives, and especially why exactly them.
>Perspective/Nietzsche, >Morality/Nietzsche.
Danto III 132
Psychology/Nietzsche/Danto: If there is nothing material, then there is nothing immaterial.(1) Danto: one could say that there is no substance that would be the task of psychology to explore.
Moral/Psychology/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche fought on two fronts at the same time: On the one hand, he hoped to attack morality by exposing the psychology that was attached to it as illogical, on the other hand, he wanted to attack this psychology by attacking the morality assumed by it.
Philosophy/Nietzsche: The attack on the soul or the self - in which he claimed to find the essence of modern philosophy - was at the same time an assassination attempt on the basic premise of Christian doctrine.(2)
Danto III 134
I/Nietzsche/Danto: (The Reason) believes in the "I", in the "I" as being, in the "I" as substance and projects the belief in the ego-substance on all things - it only creates the term 'thing' through this ... Being is thought into everything as cause, pushed underneath; from the concept 'I' only follows, as derived, the term 'being'...(3) >Subject/Nietzsche, >Person/Nietzsche, >I/Nietzsche.
Danto III 200
Psychology/Nietzsche/Danto: two terms play a prominent role in Nietzsche's psychology: resentment and bad conscience. Resentment/slave morality: the slave fears not only the malice of the master and plays it up: he resents (resentment) the strength of the master as well as his own relative powerlessness.
Danto III 201
He cannot act out his hostility on the paths open to the aristocrats. Slave's strategy: to get the master to accept the slave's list of values and to judge himself from the slave's perspective. Finally, the master will be evil in his own eyes. >revaluation of all values, >Master/Slave.
Danto III 208
Gentlemen/Slaves/Nietzsche: it would be a mistake to ask the beast to suppress its animal instincts. Similarly, people have no choice but to be different from what they are. Nietzsche: Demanding from strength that it does not express itself as strength (...) is just as absurd as demanding from weakness that it expresses itself as strength.(4)
Strengths/Nietzsche: the strong are simply actions of strength, not individuals who act in a strong way at their discretion. Just as lightning is not an entity that does something, but the light itself. The strong being is not free to show his strength or not to show it.(5)
>Individual/Nietzsche, >Superhuman/Nietzsche.
Danto III 209
Humility: is not an achievement of the weak but their nature, just as brutality is not a crime but the nature of the strong. Danto: Thrasymachos had set up something similar in politics: he trivialized his definition of justice as acting in the interests of the stronger party. Analogously, a mathematician is not a mathematician when he makes a mistake.
>Justice/Thrasymchus.
DantoVsThrasymachos/DantoVsNietzsche: both have stumbled upon the grammar: they have elevated a triviality of logic to a metaphysics of morality.
NietzscheVsThrasymachos/Danto: Nevertheless, Nietzsche is more subtle than Thrasymachos: for Nietzsche, the world consists in a way more of pulsations than pulsating objects. Pulsation, however, cannot pulsate, so to speak, only objects can do that.


1. F. Nietzsche Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 537.
2. F. Nietzsche Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI.,2 p. 33.
3. F. Nietzsche, Götzen-Dämmerung, KGW VI,3 p. 71.
4. F. Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral, KGW VI. 2, p. 293.
5. Ibid. p. 294.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005