Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 8 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Fitness Landscape
Fitness Landscape Norvig Norvig I 155
Fitness landscape/Norvig/Russell: Work by Sewall Wright (1931)(1) on the concept of a fitness landscape was an important precursor to the development of genetic algorithms. >Optimization, >Genetic algorithms, >Local minima, >Search algorithms. In the 1950s, several statisticians, including Box (1957)(2) and Friedman (1959)(3), used evolutionary techniques for optimization problems, but it wasn’t until Rechenberg (1965)(4) introduced evolution strategies to solve optimization problems for airfoils that the approach gained popularity.



1. Wright, S. (1931). Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics, 16, 97–159.
2. Box, G. E. P. (1957). Evolutionary operation: A method of increasing industrial productivity. Applied
Statistics, 6, 81–101.
3. Friedman, G. J. (1959). Digital simulation of an evolutionary process. General Systems Yearbook, 4,
171–184.
4. Rechenberg, I. (1965). Cybernetic solution path of an experimental problem. Library translation 1122, Royal Aircraft Establishment

Norvig I
Peter Norvig
Stuart J. Russell
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Upper Saddle River, NJ 2010

Learning Kauffman I 303
Definition Learning curve/learning/Kauffman: "experience curves": along technological trajectories. The general improvement rate decreases with the level of total industrial investment! (Potency Act). Reason: when a "mature" technology is in the phase of declining yields (saturation, competition), it is more difficult to raise capital for innovation.
Improvement curve flattens out as in biological evolution (fitness landscape).

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Local Minimum Anderson Brockman I 147
Local minimum problem/local maximum/fitness landscape/Chris Anderson: The limits of gradient descent constitute the so-called local-minima problem (or local-maxima problem, if you’re doing a gradient ascent). >Fitness landscape. (>Local minimum). Solution/Anderson: (…) you either need a mental model (i.e., a map) of the topology, so you know where to ascend to get out of the valley, or you need to switch between gradient descent and random walks so you can bounce your way out of the region. >Robots/Anderson, >Artificial intelligence/Anderson, >Universe/Anderson, >Fitness landscape.


Anderson, Chris “Gradient Descent” in: Brockman, John (ed.) 2019. Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI. New York: Penguin Press.

Ander I
Chris Anderson
The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More New York 2006


Brockman I
John Brockman
Possible Minds: Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI New York 2019
Objectivity Dennett I 266
Objectivity / Dennett: e.g. "optimum" for Eigen is not only defined in a solid way, but can also be assigned with experimental measurements. E.g. >fitness landscapes. The algorithms here are not invented subjectively.

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005

Selection Kauffman Dennett I 550
Scientific camp: KauffmanVsSpencer: Stuart Kauffman: Order is created despite (environmental) selection.
I 46
Order/Biology/Kauffman: Order in the biosphere cannot be traced back to selection and self-organization at the same time! Life/Kauffman: life exists at the edge of chaos, possibly near some kind of phase transition.
I 229
Fitness landscape/Kauffman:"adaptive landscape". (see also Dennett: fitness landscape.) Thesis: Life is an adventure in the high mountains of the fitness landscape.
Order/Kauffman: Thesis: also possible without selection. Today we need a new theoretical framework model.
I 233
Selection/Kauffman: it is not proven that the selection can also successfully accumulate the minor improvements. Smaller catastrophes can also accumulate in a population. (>Error catastrophe).
I 234
Evolution/Kauffman: Example of computer programs that are to perform an operation. Serial programs are extremely sensitive and accumulate errors. It takes more time than the age of the universe to find the "optimal program" among 10300. So the evolution of our lives must have been different.
I 238
Evolution/Optimization/Kauffman: Solution: perhaps evolution could first design a redundant program or organism and then compress it?
I 240
Kauffman: I guess this does not work. The gradual approach to the minimum length program is only useful if the program found at each level helps to find the program that is 1 shorter by the next level.
I 246
Evolution/Darwin/Selection/Kauffman: if the children of both parents are similar, the characteristics must not merge, otherwise the genetic variation would disappear after a few generations and the selection would no longer have an object. Solution: Mendelian inheritance: both forms appear again in the grandchildren.
Question: Assuming that a gene in a population would have two alleles, can the selection increase the frequency of one allele? Yes! However, it depends on the structure of the fitness landscape.
I 248
Selection/Kauffman: our models of fitness landscapes show the limits of natural selection. (Local maximum represent end stations.)
I 253
Evolution/Kauffman: requires fitness landscapes that are not random. Probably favourable landscapes are created by self-organization.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998


Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005
Species Kauffman I 310
Species/Evolution/Kauffman: it is estimated that between 99% and 99.9% of all species that have ever existed are extinct again. Today: probably between 10 and 100 million species.
Probably between 10 and 100 billion species have emerged and disappeared in the course of time.
I 310/311
Fitness landscape/Co-evolution/Kauffman: changes when the environment changes. Predator-prey-cycles. Both have a fitness landscape, but the two are combined! Co-evolution. Co-evolution/Kauffman: changes not only the organisms (predator/prey) but also their interrelationship! This changes not only the respective fitness landscape, but also the elasticity of their relationships.
Thus, the process of co-evolution itself is subject to evolution.
Selection/Kauffman: starts at the level of the individual. The mystery is that the emergent order of communities reflects this selection of individuals.
I 312
Predator-prey-cycle/Kauffman: either long-term transition to a steady state (parallel) or long-term shifted sinusoidal fluctuations, then "boundary cycle".
I 315
Evolution/Communities/Kauffman: Question: How do biocoenoses form? We do not know it. When you fence an area (ecotope) the composition of the species always changes. After removing the fence, however, the original composition is not restored!
"Community fitness landscape": after the change, the community climbs another summit. At a summit, a community cannot accept new species. Saturation limit.
I 320
Problem: it does not make sense to talk about community fitness right from the start! The success of immigration does not depend directly on whether it increases the fitness of the community! Now, however, the simulations behave as if community fitness existed. In the model (not in reality) we see here an emergent phenomenon.
Extinction events/extinction/Kauffman: the extinction of species occurs according to the pattern of avalanches in sand heaps, many small, few large avalanches, unpredictable, potency law.
N.B.: the decision on how the interrelationship between species is formed, who is predator and who is prey, is based on a random distribution.
I 320
Mitochondria/Kauffman: have penetrated the cells at some point and started the complicated interaction mechanism that has been stable for about one billion years. Highly complex problem. Definition Mutualism: Mitochondria keep up the stable population by the speed of their divisions, the cell enjoys the energetic fruits of these efforts.
I 322
"Red Queen Effect"/Kauffman: (Alice): "You must run as fast as you can to stay in the same place".
I 323
Co-evolution/Niche/Kauffman: the goods and services in a community (economic network) exist only because they are useful as an intermediate or final product. These are the niches created by other goods and services. Niche/Kauffman: each species lives in a niche created by other species. (>benefit for others).

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Universe Anderson Brockman I 145
Universe/artificial intelligence/Chris Anderson: We live in a world of countless gradients, from light and heat to gravity and chemical trails (chemtrails!). Water flows along a gravity gradient downhill, and your body lives on chemical solutions flowing across cell membranes from high concentration to low.
Brockman I 146
clients to form molecules. Our own urges, such as hunger and sleepiness, are driven by electrochemical gradients in our bodies. And our brain’s functions, the electrical signals moving along ion channels in the synapses between our neurons, are simply atoms and electrons flowing “downhill” along yet more electrical and chemical gradients. As I sit here typing, I’m actually seeking equilibrium states in an n-dimensional topology of gradients.
Brockman I 147
Problem: However, this is too simplistic. The limits of gradient descent constitute the so-called local-minima problem (or local-maxima problem, if you’re doing a gradient ascent). >Fitness landscape/Kauffman. (>Local minimum).
Solution/Anderson: (…) you either need a mental model (i.e., a map) of the topology, so you know where to ascend to get out of the valley, or you need to switch between gradient descent and random walks so you can bounce your way out of the region.


Anderson, Chris “Gradient Descent” in: Brockman, John (ed.) 2019. Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI. New York: Penguin Press.

Ander I
Chris Anderson
The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More New York 2006


Brockman I
John Brockman
Possible Minds: Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI New York 2019

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Darwin, Ch. Kauffman Vs Darwin, Ch. Dennett I 309
KauffmanVsDarwin: a definition of the early development and thus of Baer s laws do not represent a specific mechanism   Rather the definition of early development reflects the fact that the number of ways in which living things can be improved, shrunk faster than the number of paths in the later development.
KauffmanVsDarwin: according to his theory, the evolution takes place only by the gradual accumulation of advantageous variants.
Kauffman I 27
KauffmanVs: according to that the first multicellular organisms would have evolved apart! That was obviously not the case: one of the most puzzling features of the Cambrian explosion is that the taxonomic system was filled from top to bottom. Selection / Kauffman: there is a second boundary of the selection: it not only fails in random landscapes.
I 278
KauffmanVsDarwin: the selection may also fail in uniform fitness landscapes, the "heartland" of Darwinism: it can trigger an error catastrophe.   E.g. a bacterial species with initially identical individuals can be scattered from a local peak, down, simply because the mutation rate is too high!

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005

The author or concept searched is found in the following theses of the more related field of specialization.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Evolution Kauffman, St. I 238
Evolution / Optimization: / Kauffman solution: perhaps evolution could first design a redundant program or organism and then compress?
I 240
 Kauffman: Thesis: I suspect it cannot. The successive approximation to the minimum-length program is in fact only be useful if the program found at each level helps locate the shorter program at the next level. (> Fitness landscape).