Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Imagination Sextus Empiricus Taureck I 107
Imagination/Paradox/Subjectivism/Sextus Empiricus: If every imagination is true, then the judgment that not all imagination is true is founded on imagination and is itself true. Therefore, it is wrong that all imagination is true.
((s) >Cf. Counterargument against the Philosophy of Interpretation: If everything is an interpretation than this thesis that everything is an interpretation is an interpretation too and so it is not certain. VsInterpretation philosophy/Abel/Klenk, G., >VsAbel, Günter, VsKlenk, Hans)


Taureck I
B. H.F. Taureck
Die Sophisten Hamburg 1995
Interpretation Nietzsche Danto III 133
Interpretation/Nietzsche/Danto: According to Nietzsche, one manifestation of the will to power is to imprint thought forms on reality - and language is a mental form. Language, however, is a distorting entity, foreign to the person to whom it is imposed, even though it serves the purpose of organizing it for the speaker's purposes. The language interprets reality in the sense of "to work something out". And interpretation is an example of the will to power. >Language/Nietzsche, >Will/Nietzsche, >World/thinking/Nietzsche.
We are completely taken in by the view that something has to be responsible for what is going on; and we go astray.
Nietzsche: One must not ask: "who interprets then?" but the interpretation itself, as a form of the will to power has existence (but not as a 'being').(1)
Danto: We must always bear in mind that Nietzsche is concerned with active processes or forces that have a certain degree of reality and from which (as he claims) it does not necessarily follow that there are entities that act or exert power.
Danto III 273
Interpretation/Art/Science/Religion/Philosophy/Power/Nietzsche/Danto: According to Nietzsche, we should recognize in everything that we are not strictly different from what we do. We are the will to power, it is the will that asserts our forces externally, and interpreting is a mode of imposing. Interpreting is then not something we do, but what we are: we live our philosophies, we do not just have them.(2) Danto: Interpretation must be understood in a broader sense as usual:
Interpretation/Nietzsche: In truth, interpretation is a means itself to become the master of something. (The organic process requires continual interpretation.)(3)
Thinking/Categorys/Nietzsche: All our categories of thought - object, attribute, cause, effect, reality, appearance, etc. - represent interpretations that are to be understood "in the sense of a will to power".(4)
>Grammar/Nietzsche.

1. F. Nietzsche Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 487.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid. p.. 489
4. Ibid.
((s) Cf. Nietzsche's influences on G. Abel's interpretation philosophy: G. Abel, Interpretationswelten. Gegenwartsphilosophie jenseits von Essentialismus und Relativitismus, Frankfurt, 1993 - H. Lenk Philosophie und Interpretation, Frankfurt 1993 - H. Lenk Interpretation und Realität, Frankfurt 1995).

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Literal Truth Nietzsche Danto III 57
Literal Truth/Nietzsche/Danto: if you define the metaphor like Nietzsche (see Metaphor/Nietzsche) and therefore each sentence is considered metaphorical, then - absurdly - each sentence must also be unconventional. Then it's hard to see what we mean by metaphor. Danto: Nietzsche would probably reply: "Metaphors are sentences that are never perceived, or at least never literally true; no sentence is ever to be taken literally in relation to what he is dealing with; therefore, each sentence is metaphorical to a certain degree. In practice (or even rhetoric) it makes little difference whether we say that no sentence is literally true or, as Nietzsche should formulate it even more radically later, that every sentence is literally wrong.
The only question is whether our language can help us in life.
---
Danto III 58
DantoVsNietzsche: Problem: If all sentences are merely metaphorical, then the thesis that sentences are merely metaphorical, is also just metaphorical, i.e. it is not literally true. ((s) See the argument VsInterpretation Philosophy, VsAbel, G.).
---
Danto III 62
Besides: The first sentences ever articulated cannot have been metaphors.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Metaphors Nietzsche Pfotenhauer IV 41
Metaphor/Concepts/Nietzsche(1): the concepts that built up a rigid and regular world covered a fundamental "drive to metaphor formation" - the anthropomorphic activity, which is also the basis of ...
Pfotenhauer IV 42
...science, but hidden, it then would become productive on the basis of this drive. New "transfers, metaphors, metonymies"(2) would be added. Continually, the desire to redesign the existing world of the awake human being so colorfully and irregularly, incoherently, and eternally new as the world of dreams is. Pfotenhauer: He no longer finds consolation in an art exercise that is above all of them, the aesthetic game has become the moment of a life's fulfilment.... In this conception, the change of emotions and the causality of the mental processes has replaced the exuberant view of aesthetic possibilities.
>Aesthetics/Nietzsche, >Literature/Nietzsche, >Language/Nietzsche.

1. F. Nietzsche, Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinne, KGW, III, 2, p. 380ff
2. Ibid. p. 381
---
Danto III 53
Metaphor/Nietzsche/Danto: (cf. Truth/Nietzsche (F. Nietzsche, On Truth and Lies in the Nonmoral Sense(1)). We are talking about metaphors. Cf. >Truth/Nietzsche.
Note that here metaphors are linguistic means of expression for experiences and not for things. This makes it almost inevitable that the expression of an unconventional experience will be almost incomprehensible. (See Experience/Nietzsche),
cf. >Analogies.
Danto III 58
DantoVsNietzsche: Problem: If all sentences are merely metaphorical, then the thesis that sentences are merely metaphorical, is just metaphorical as well, i.e. it is not literally true. ((s) See the argument VsInterpretation Philosophy, VsAbel, G.).
Danto III 62
Besides: The first sentences ever articulated cannot have been metaphors.


1.F. Nietzsche, Über Wahrheit und Lüge im außermoralischen Sinne, KGW1/III, 2, S. 374f.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Pfot I
Helmut Pfotenhauer
Die Kunst als Physiologie. Nietzsches ästhetische Theorie und literarische Produktion. Stuttgart 1985

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005


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