Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Situation Semantics Cresswell I 63
Situation Semantics/Barwise/Perry: possible worlds (poss.w.) are too big to explain what the speaker of a sentence knows. Possible World: complete possible situations. >Situations, >Possible worlds, >Facts.
CresswellVsBarwise: Situations need only be partial in the sense that they are small possible worlds.
>Barwise/Perry.
I 69
CresswellVsBarweise/Perry: disjunction: their construction requires that situations are considered as possible worlds: E.g. I am at home or at the university: as a proposition incomplete, because both made true. The situation can only be one of the two.
Making true/truthmaker: the total (disjunction) does not have to be made true by an alternative, because it can also be made true by another alternative.
>Truthmakers.
I 72
Situations seem incomplete. (E.g. Does the dog bark loudly or quietly?) - But they are not as incomplete as propositions. >Propositions.
I 71
Problem: Total situation: The machine is working (shows red or green). - still contradiction: is the situation described by a or by b? If the signal was neither showing red nor green, the incompleteness would be too radical. >Descriptions, >Incompleteness.
I 73
Incomplete/situation/Barwise/Perry: E.g. naked infinitives with "see". Joe saw Fred coming in and Sally was smoking or not smoking. >Naked infinitive.
Cresswell: so everything possible; but then they are possible worlds.
Everything that can be a possible world is a possible world. Possible worlds do not have to be large, they can be as small as situations at Barwise/Perry.
Different:
Aspect/Hintikka: (= incompleteness of possible world): all facts about who slept during the lecture.
>Aspects.
CresswellVsHintikka: we do not want lists, these are metaphysical here.
Solution/Cresswell. "Everything that interests us in the situation". ((s) So lists after all.) Thus the truth of the propositions can be determined.
I 74
Definition essentially incomplete/Cresswell: a situation is essentially incomplete when it only needs to be part of an accumulation of situations (disjunction). CresswellVsBarwise: but this does not work with naked infinitives with "see": E.g. of "Ralph saw Ortcutt or Hortcutt hide the letter". - at "Ralph saw... or saw... ". (This is not a that-sentence!)
>That-clause.
This is not possible if seeing should be a relation between subject and situation. - ((s) Then only one of the two.)
>Seeing.
I 77
Situation Semantics/CresswellVs: knows only one kind of entities (situations). - instead: possible world semantics: three types: 1. possible world, single and complete (assessed with regard to truth) 2. Propositions: classes of possible worlds, are in logical relations and are the meanings of sentences in a context
3. Individuals (individuals) among them events.
>Possible world semantics.
Situations/Cresswell: can be considered as one of each of these kind of entities.

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

Situations Cresswell I 75
Situation/Cresswell: if they are to be individuals, they must be completed. Cf. >Possible worls, >Accessibility.
It must be possible for a situation without an A to contain an A - but there is no individual whose existence logically isdependent on another.
>Existence, >Dependence.
I 76
Bare infinitive: if relation to an event, then not disjunctive. Event/Cresswell: events are not the meanings of sentences. - E.g. someone broke into my appartment: in the sense there is nothing that tells me who.
The entities that are referenced to the bare infinitives are not semantic values ​​of sentences - but of situations.
>Naked infinitive, >Events >Sentence meaning.
II 169
Def situation/Cresswell: (essentially) a collection of individuals with certain characteristics, where the individuals are in certain relationships. >Individuals, >Properties, cf. >Facts.

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

That-Clauses Cresswell II 54
Definition content: be the meaning of the that-clause - it is about contents in this book - different objects (sentences) can have the same content. >Content, >Sentences, >Propositions, >Propositional content.
II 89
That-clause/intension/Cresswell: the intension of the that-clause is not always equal to the intension of the complement clause - (the clause following the "that"). >Intensions, >Propositions.
Iterated propositional attitude: Problem: occurs when the most outside "that" operates on the sense (structure) of the complement clause - analogously: the plus sign would then contain itself as one of its arguments.
II 159
Propositional attitude/attribution/that-clause/truth conditions/content/Cresswell: thesis: the truth conditions of clauses with propositional attitudes are determined by the contents of the that-clauses - that is the only thing I want. >Truth conditions.
II 160
More than just the truth conditions of the complement clauses are involved in the attribution of propositional attitudes. >Attribution.
II 172
Naked infinitive/Cresswell: behaves quite differently from the that-clause - E.g. a) Fred saw Betty coming in
b) Fred saw Betty coming in and he saw Sally smoking or not smoking
Barwise/Perry: one cannot go from a) to b) Cresswell dito.
Naked infinitives have no proposition as a semantic value but a situation type.
>Semantic value.
Event/Cresswell: there are no disjunctive events.
Negation of event/negative event: also not possible: - E.g. "Fred saw Betty not smoking".
Events/Cresswell: are only used because some expressions do not behave as whole sentences.
>Sentence meaning, >Subsententials.

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

Cr II
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984



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