Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Discourse Habermas III 40
Discourse/theoretical/practical/Habermas: I myself have a tendency to adopt a cognitivist position, according to which practical questions can basically be decided on an argumentative basis. However, this position can only be defended in a promising way if we do not hastily assimilate practical discourses, which have an internal reference and interpreted needs of the persons concerned, into theoretical discourses with their relation to the interpreted experiences of an observer. >Cognitivism.
III 41
Arguments used to justify value standards do not meet the requirements of discourses. In the prototypical case they have the form of aesthetic criticism. (See also Culture/Habermas, >Argumentation.
III 45
Theoretical discourse: cognitive-instrumental - it is about the truth of propositions and the effectiveness of teleological actions Practical discourse: moral-practical - it is about the correctness of actions
Aesthetic critique: evaluative - it is about the appropriateness of value standards
Therapeutic critique: expressive - it is about the truthfulness of expressions
Explicative discourse: - this is about the comprehensibility or well-formedness of symbolic constructs.
III 71
Definition Discourse/Habermas: I only speak of discourses when the meaning of the problematic claim to validity forces the participants conceptually to assume that a rational, motivated agreement could basically be achieved, whereby "basically" expresses the idealizing reservation: if the argumentation could only be led openly enough and continued for long enough.(1) >Discourse theory.

1. Das geht auf Ch. S. Peirce zurück. Vgl. dazu H. Scheit, Studien zur Konsensustheorie der Wahrheit, Habilitationsschrift Universität München, 1981.

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Grammar Black II 52f
Grammar/Black: 1) Classification of words according to function - 2) How words are modified by prefixes and suffixes - 3) Presentation of the syntax. >Words, >Classification, >Syntax, >Word classes.
II 64
Grammar is explored by trying to obtain information about well-formedness from the speaker.
II 68f
BlackVsSpeculative Grammar: presumes a structure of reality and a non-linguistic approach - as impossible as comparison of maps without any distortion.
II 70
Map: crucial: correct information, not similarity - analog: symbolic representations of language. >Map example.
II 70
Objectivity/Grammar/Black: grammar is objective if some features are essential for the description -> grammatical invariants - Black: but that's not fertile.
II 72
There are no grammatical invariants.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994

Validity Claims Habermas III 65
Definition validity claim/Habermas: a validity claim is equivalent to the assertion that the conditions for the validity of a statement are fulfilled. While yes/no opinions on claims to power are arbitrary, statements on claims of validity are characterised by the fact that the listener agrees or disagrees with a criticisable statement for reasons. They are an expression of insight. HabermasVsTugendhat: this neglects this distinction in E. Tugendhat 1976(1).
III 66
Examples of claims of validity are those of truth, correctness, appropriateness or comprehensibility (or well-formedness). These claims of validity are usually implicitly raised. >Truth, >Correctness, >Appropriateness, >Understandability, >Well-formedness.
IV 107
Validity Claim/Speech Act/Habermas: a speaker can motivate a listener to accept his/her offer independently of the normative context. >Motivation.
This is not the achievement of an effect with the listener, but a rationally motivated communication with the listener, which comes about on the basis of a criticisable validity claim. This is about a speaker's demand that the listener should accept a sentence as true or as truthful.
IV 111
Norm validity/truth/Durkheim/Habermas: the idea of truth can only borrow from the concept of norm validity the determination of the impersonality deprived of time (2) of an idealized agreement, an inter-subjectivity related to an ideal communication community. >Norms, >Ideal speech community.
The authority behind knowledge does not (...) coincide with the moral authority behind norms. Rather, the concept of truth combines the objectivity of experience with the claim to intersubjective validity of a corresponding descriptive statement, the idea of correspondence of sentences and facts with the concept of an idealized consensus.
>Consensus, >Intersubjectivity, >Correspondence, >Facts, >Reality, >Objectivity, >Experience.
Validity Claim/Habermas: only from this connection does the term of a criticizable validity claim emerge.

1. E. Tugendhat, Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die sprachanalytische Philosophie, Frankfurt 1976, p. 76f, 219ff
2. Vgl. 1.E. Durkheim, Les formes élementaires de la vie religieuse, Paris, 1968, German: Frankfurt 1981, S. 584.

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

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