|Active: from the perspective of an agent. The passive form of the corresponding verb does not lead to a change in the meaning of the verb.|
|Geach, Peter T.
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active / passive / Geach: Incorrect alignment with transitive / intransitive - but transitive: see, know, love: quite different from intransitive, indicating that something has been changed
active / passive / Geach: "Smith shaving Smith": big difference: to shave Smith or be shaved by him -
Logic Matters Oxford 1972