|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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Reference: two kinds: 1) word world (extralinguistic reference) E.g. "the author of Dreams of a Mind-Seer "who refers to a real person (namely Kant) - 2) word-word (intra-linguistic or anaphoric reference) E.g. "Wittgenstein wanted to .., so he traveled to Jena".
Reference/necessity/Brandom: contingent: The expression "Leibniz" refers to Leibniz - Necessary: Leibniz is Leibniz.
Co-reference of types: asserted identity between indirect defined denominations.
Reference/Expression/Brandom: our approach distinguishes sharply between expressions and their referents - E.g. The expressions "the expression Leibniz" and "The referent of the expression Leibniz" are used quite differently - "refers to" does not lead to a merger with extra-linguistic things.
Reference/Brandom: no particular entity.
Referring/Reference/Brandom: cannot be understood in terms of showing, rather the showing must be explained in concepts of reference.
Anaphora: is necessary to generate the repeatable from the unrepeatable where co-typicity does not even bear a cancelable assumption of co-reference, and therefore not of (co-)recurrence, either.
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Brandom: e.g. Fred says to Wilma: "The man with the glass of champagne is very angry." This refers to Barney, but he has ginger ale in his glass. Nelson has champagne in the glass. But he is not angry.
Speaker Reference: Barney,
Semantic reference: Nelson.
Pronouns/Brandom: allow us to talk without knowing what we are talking about (reference) - e.g. if he did that, then he deserves whatever he has coming for him.
Reference/Quine: According to two dogmas, reference is more important than meaning.
Expressive Vernunft Frankfurt 2000
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001