Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 4 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Operationalism Barrow I 37
Operationalism: Science is a system of rules for the exploration of the world in the laboratory - linguistically: how are the words used? - InstrumentalismVsEmpiricism: useful concepts are not only those which can be traced back to the sense data. - Theories and laws of nature are only instruments to make the environment understandable. True/false do not exist as properties of theories. - Idealism: since all knowledge is filtered through our minds, we are never sure if there is a connection to reality. I 42 OperationalismVsEmpiricism: theories may also be invented - therefore, the observer receives a more important role.
I 41f
VsOperationalism/Barrow: asks what is measurable. Therefore, he must exclude complex and irrational numbers. - Fragmentation of science: every time we use a different method of measurement, we need to consider a number as a different variable. - Circular: operationalism presumes that we know what an permissible operation is. - Problem: certain concepts may only be used when sensitive devices allow accurate measurements - ((s) thus excluding something in the future.)

B I
John D. Barrow
Warum die Welt mathematisch ist Frankfurt/M. 1996

B II
John D. Barrow
The World Within the World, Oxford/New York 1988
German Edition:
Die Natur der Natur: Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit Heidelberg 1993

B III
John D. Barrow
Impossibility. The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, Oxford/New York 1998
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des Unmöglichen. Forschung an den Grenzen des Wissens Heidelberg 2001

Quantities (Physics) Barrow I 191
Conserved quantity/physics: the laws of nature are in a sense nothing more than a list of Invariant properties of nature:
I 193
laws of nature: E.g. (conserved) momentum is invariant under translations in space. - Energy: in translations in time - angular momentum under rotations in space - this follows from the fact that the laws of nature are neither dependent on the place nor the time, nor on the orientation. - Symmetry: has higher rank among scientists, as the equations that explain the changes.
I 491
Sizes/Independence/System/Barrow: to make sizes independently of a system, we need the basic variables only as ratios of magnitudes of the same kind.

B I
John D. Barrow
Warum die Welt mathematisch ist Frankfurt/M. 1996

B II
John D. Barrow
The World Within the World, Oxford/New York 1988
German Edition:
Die Natur der Natur: Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit Heidelberg 1993

B III
John D. Barrow
Impossibility. The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, Oxford/New York 1998
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des Unmöglichen. Forschung an den Grenzen des Wissens Heidelberg 2001

Reality Barrow I 240
Reality/Quantum Mechanics/Einstein-Podolski-Rosen/EPR/BohrVsEPR: The EPR argument did not make an impression on Bohr because he did not accept their definition of "reality". He claimed that a distinction between reality and observed reality was meaningless.
I 241
Reality/Bohr/Barrow: thesis: there is no unobserved reality. - There are no laws of nature.

B I
John D. Barrow
Warum die Welt mathematisch ist Frankfurt/M. 1996

B II
John D. Barrow
The World Within the World, Oxford/New York 1988
German Edition:
Die Natur der Natur: Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit Heidelberg 1993

B III
John D. Barrow
Impossibility. The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, Oxford/New York 1998
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des Unmöglichen. Forschung an den Grenzen des Wissens Heidelberg 2001

Theories Barrow I 285ff
Calibration Theories/Barrow: modern theories of elementary particles and their interaction. The first calibration theory was Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Such theories are entirely based on symmetries - the descriptions of gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear force are all calibration theories - the new additional symmetries are called inner symmetries. They correspond to invariants in renaming particle identity. For example, when the identity of all protons in the world is swapped with that of neutrons. The calibration age systematically reduced the laws of the microworld to symmetries - we are not dependent on observation then. Calibration symmetries can also be the key to generating new Laws of nature. They describe what kind of particles is allowed, but not how many variants each allowed particle has. It tells us that certain quantities are proportional to others, but it does not determine the values of the proportionality factors. Therefore, calibration theories are not the ultimate descriptions of nature.
I 290
The solutions of symmetric equations do not need to have symmetry! It follows that the true symmetries are hidden, they determine the laws, not their consequences. When a calibration theory is broken in a certain way, the carrier particle necessary to mediate the local calibration invariance assumes a mass. This is probably the origin of the mass. Some calibration theories are not broken (gravitation, electrodynamics) Their carrier particles, graviton and photon, are massless.

B I
John D. Barrow
Warum die Welt mathematisch ist Frankfurt/M. 1996

B II
John D. Barrow
The World Within the World, Oxford/New York 1988
German Edition:
Die Natur der Natur: Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit Heidelberg 1993

B III
John D. Barrow
Impossibility. The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, Oxford/New York 1998
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des Unmöglichen. Forschung an den Grenzen des Wissens Heidelberg 2001


The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Steady State Theory Barrow Vs Steady State Theory I 330
Cosmological Principle/Barrow: the average non-uniformity should become smaller the larger the space that is overlooked in outer space. Covariance of the Laws of nature.
But this is only true on a very large scale, which even surpasses that of the galaxies. The "perfect cosmological principle" of steady-state theory demands that the universe not only looks the same everywhere but also at all times.

I 331
VsSteady state theory/SST: if we take the average density as a clock, the past differs radically from the present: it had a high density, the present a low density. Consistency can only be maintained if new matter is constantly created everywhere. (>Kanitscheider, Kosmologie, Stuttgart 1991, pp. 161f, 289f).

B I
John D. Barrow
Warum die Welt mathematisch ist Frankfurt/M. 1996

B II
John D. Barrow
The World Within the World, Oxford/New York 1988
German Edition:
Die Natur der Natur: Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit Heidelberg 1993

B III
John D. Barrow
Impossibility. The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits, Oxford/New York 1998
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des Unmöglichen. Forschung an den Grenzen des Wissens Heidelberg 2001

The author or concept searched is found in the following theses of an allied field of specialization.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Unobserved Bohr, N. Barrow I 241
Reality / Bohr: thesis: there is no unobserved reality - there are no laws of nature.