Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 11 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Behavior Morozov Morozov I 214
Behavior/Social Networks/Technology/Digitalization/Politics/Economy/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly's thesis: Only by listening to the history of technology (...) we can hope to solve our personal puzzles. (1) Kelly: we can modify our legal and economic expectations by adapting them to the (...) technological development lines. (2)
I 215
MorozovVsKelly: Why should we change our economic and political assumptions if we could change those lines of development instead? Why change our notions of privacy if we could change Facebook and Google instead? Why should we accept predictive policing measures instead of restricting them to areas where they do not undermine contradiction and reason? And to what extent should we change our expectations?
KellyVsMorozov: instead, he thinks you should try every idea immediately. And continue as long as this idea exists. (3)
I 216
Behavior/KellyVsAmish/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly accuses the Amish of denying opportunities not only to their own people, but to all people. (4) MorozovVsKelly: It never dawned on Kelly that political communities may be entitled to determine their own lives, and that restrictions as far as they have been democratically created - as is not always the case with the Amish - could also be good for humanity. Kelly's all about the means.

1. Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), p. 6
2. ibid. p. 174
3. ibid., p.252. 4. ibid. p. 237.

Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014

Behavior Kelly Morozov I 214
Behavior/Social Networks/Technology/Politics/Economy/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly thesis: Only by listening to the history of technology (...) can we hope to solve our personal puzzles. (1) Kelly: we can modify our legal and economic expectations by adapting them to the (...) technological development lines. (2)
I 215
MorozovVsKelly: Why should we change our economic and political assumptions if we could change those lines of development instead? Why change our notions of privacy if we could change Facebook and Google instead? Why should we accept predictive policing measure instead of restricting them to areas where they do not undermine contradiction and reason? And to what extent should we change our expectations? KellyVsMorozov: instead, he thinks you should try every idea immediately. And continue as long as this idea exists. (3)
I 216
Behavior/KellyVsAmish/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly accuses the Amish of denying opportunities not only to their own people, but to all people. (4) MorozovVsKelly: It never dawned on Kelly that political communities may be entitled to determine their own lives, and that restrictions as far as they have been democratically created - as is not always the case with the Amish - could also be good for humanity. Kelly's all about the means.


1. Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), p. 6
2. ibid. p. 174
3. ibid., p.252. 4. ibid. p. 237

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Complexes/Complexity Kelly I 4092
Complexity/Kelly: the same dynamic that shapes complexity in the natural world, it is also expressed in Technicum ((s) terminology: Technium is Kelly's expression of a technology that evolves naturally and makes its own demands.)
I 4104
Software complexity increased linearly between 1993 and 2003 from about 5 million lines of code for a Windows operating system to about 50 million. (1)
I 4108
Machine parts: their number is growing exponentially. (2)
I 4113
Development of complexity: several scenarios are possible: Scenario 1: most of the Technology remains simple, as in nature, this applies to things made of materials such as stone, wood, etc., but also metal cables.
I 4119
Scenario 2: a final stage is reached somewhere by reaching physical limits. Scenario 3: Growth without limits.
I 4168
Natural Diversity/Life Forms/Kelly: the number of taxonomic families has grown linearly in evolution (3) while the number of technical patents has grown exponentially over the last 150 years. (4)
I 4316
Cell types/complexity/Kelly: the increase in specialized types of cells follows a saturation curve, it is limited. (5)
1. Data from Vincent Maraia. (2005) The Build Master: Microsoft ’s Soft ware Configuration Management Best Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ; Addison-Wesley Professional.
2. Data from Robert U. Ayres. (1991) Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Revolution in Progress. London: Chapman & Hall, p. 3.
3. J. John Sepkoski, (1993) “Ten Years in the Library: New Data Confirm Paleontological Patterns.” Paleobiology, 19 (1), p. 48.
4. Brigid Quinn and Ruth Nyblod. (2006) “United States Patent and Trademark Office Issues 7 Millionth Patent.” United States Patent and Trademark Office.
5. Data from James W. Valentine, Allen G. Collins, et al. (1994) “Morphological Complexity Increase in Metazoans.” Paleobiology, Paleobiology, 20 (2), p. 134. http://paleobiol.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/2/131.

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011

Innovation Kelly Kelly I 2103
Innovation/Ideas/Kelly: the more specific universal ideas become, the more they lose their inevitability.
I 2149
Plagiarism/Doublettes/Repetition/Probability/Kelly: After Rowling had launched Harry Potter with great success in 1997, she successfully fought off the complaint of an American author who 13 years earlier had published a series of children's books about a Larry Potter, an orphan boy wearing glasses.
I 2155
In 1990, Neil Gaiman wrote a comic book about a dark-haired English boy who, on his 12th birthday, learns that he is a magician and receives an owl as a gift from a magical visitor. Or think of a story by Jane Yolen from 1991 about Henry, a boy who attends a magical school for young wizards and has to overthrow an evil wizard. Then there is The Secret of Platform 13, released in 1994, which offers a gate on a platform to a magical underworld.
There are many good reasons to believe J. K. Rowling when she claims that she has not read any of these books (for example, very few of the Muggle books have been printed and almost none of them have been sold; and Gaiman's teenage boy comics usually do not appeal to single mothers), and many other reasons to accept the fact that these ideas have arisen simultaneously in spontaneous creation. (1)
I 2234
Cultural Innovations/Kelly: the archaeologist John Troeng listed 53 prehistoric innovations, beyond agriculture, which not only arose two but three times in three different regions of the world, in Africa, Western Eurasia and Asia with Australia. 22 of them also appeared in America. (2) Kelly: the order of these innovations also coincided with a correlation of 0.93 for three regions and 0.85 for all four regions.
I 2259
Robert K. Merton: Thesis: Inventions become almost inevitable when the necessary types of knowledge and tools come together. (3)
I 2265
Kelly: tis is true even for extremely complex inventions today.
I 2284
Technological development/Kelly: Mobile phones do not make copper cables a little superfluous, but even lead to the construction of new lines, as users demand higher bandwidths.
I 3251
Genetically modified seed/Amish/Kelly: the Amish use genetically modified seeds to maintain their ancestral life form without being in debt. They do not express it in these words, but they made it clear that they see the seeds as appropriate technology for their family farms.
1. “Harry Potter Influences and Analogues.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Potter_influences_and_analogues&oldid=330124521.
2. John Troeng. (1993) Worldwide Chronology of Fift y-three Innovations. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
3. Robert K. Merton. (1973) The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 371.

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011

Markets Kelly Morozov I 217
Markets/Technology/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly thesis: the limitation of technology is ineffective, if not harmful. Restrictions are also not permanent. If something is confined in one place, it comes back to life elsewhere. (1) Globalization/Marketplace/Kelly: Thesis: Where a Technology is banned locally, it slips out of control to be bundled elsewhere on the globe. (2)
MorozovVsKelly: but why should we take a global view of Technology when it is regulated by local conditions? Maybe a local community was strong enough to block something unacceptable.
Politics/MorozovVsKelly: the misleading thing about his speech is that it is technological, but in reality it is highly political.


1. Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), p. 242
2. ibid. p. 243

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Moore's Law Kelly Kelly I 1293
Moore's Law/Kelly: 500 years ago, Moore's law did not apply (that the performance of technologies doubles in 18 months while the price is halved): for example, a hammer did not become easier to handle over the decades, for example, the strength of iron did not improve.
Morozov I 218
Moore's Law/Kelly/Morozov: Kelly Thesis: The curve behind Moore's Law is a way in which the Technium (the technology) speaks to us. (1) Meanwhile/Kelly/Morozov: The idea that Moore's law resembles a natural law is widespread in Silicon Valley - it is one of Ray Kurzweil's original myths - and has long spread beyond the Technology industry, often called upon to justify an action.
IlkkaTuomi/Morozov: Ilkka Tuomi conducted an extensive empirical study on industry growth rates and echoes in the media - Tuomi thesis: Actually, there is no such law. Most of the discussions about Moore's Law are historically inaccurate and go far beyond the available data. (2)
Tuomi: sociologically fascinating is how myths are created in modern society and how quickly they find their way into scientific literature, industrialist speeches and governmental announcements all over the world. (3) (See MorozovVsKelly)


1. K. Kelly, What Technology Wants, p. 170.
2. Law: Ilkka Tuomi, “The Lives and Death of Moore’s Law,” First Monday 7, no. 11 (2002), http:// firstmonday.org/ htbin/ cgiwrap/ bin/ ojs/ index.php/ fm/ article/ view/ 1000/ 921.
3. ibid.

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Moore's Law Kurzweil Morozov I 218
Moore's Law/Kurzweil/Morozov: The idea that Moore's law resembles a law of nature is widespread in Silicon Valley - it is one of the original myths of Ray Kurzweil's singularity movement - and has long spread beyond the technology industry, often called upon to justify action. Ilkka Tuomi/Morozov: Ilkka Tuomi conducted an extensive empirical study on industry growth rates and media echoes - TuomiVsKurzweil: Thesis: In fact, there is no such law. Most of the discussions about Moore's Law are historically inaccurate and go far beyond the available data. (1)
Tuomi: sociologically fascinating is how myths are created in modern society and how quickly they find their way into scientific literature, industrialist speeches and governmental announcements all over the world. (2) (See Moore's Law/Kelly; >MorozovVsKelly)

1. Law”: Ilkka Tuomi, “The Lives and Death of Moore’s Law,” First Monday 7, no. 11 (2002), http:// firstmonday.org/ htbin/ cgiwrap/ bin/ ojs/ index.php/ fm/ article/ view/ 1000/ 921.
2. ibid.

Kurzw I
Ray Kurzweil
The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology New York 2006


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Nature Kelly Morozov I 217
Nature/Technology/Kelly/Morozov: "The dominance of technology ultimately derives from its origin in the same self-organization that has brought galaxies, planets, life and mind into being. (1) Kelly: "We tend to isolate the produced Technology from nature, to the point that we consider it as anti-nature only because it has grown to compete with the effects and power of its homeland. But in its origins and foundations, a tool is as natural as our lives." (2)
MorozovVsKelly: compare this with Nazi propagandist Fritz Todt:
Fritz Todt: It would be paradoxical if the works of Technology in their outer expression were in contradiction with nature, because the true essence of Technology is a consequence of the laws of nature. .... The works of Technology must be constructed in harmony with nature... (3)....
MorozovVsKelly: his laissez-faire attitude comes equally from Ayn Rand, even though he does not mention it. It is rarely mentioned at all in connection with technology. (See Technology).


1. Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), p. 70.
2. ibid. p. 22
3. quoted in John C. Guse, “Nazi Technical Thought Revisited,” History and Technology: An International Journal 26, no. 1 (2010): 10.

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Technology Morozov I 213
Technology/Morozov: is considered by many authors to be neutral in terms of good or evil and as something inevitable (1), (2), (3). Morozov: the view that Technology is something autonomous, has a long line of ancestors, best represented by Langdon Winner, 1978 (4).
I 214
Technology/Kelly/Morozov: Kevin Kelly, the first publisher of Wired has written an influential book "What Technology wants". (5) (See also Technology/Kelly). Kelly/Morozov: Kelly Thesis: Kelly, who uses a fancy word, "Technium", as a replacement for "Technology " with a capital T, assures his readers that "the Technium wants what we want, that it wants what we impose upon it to do. In addition, the Technium has its own wishes! It wants to prove itself as something special and give itself a hierarchical structure. It also wants to preserve itself and gain complexity and power, like all living systems.
MorozovVsKelly: his speech is full of duplicity. At the same time, he assures us that we have control and that there is actually no need for such control, because it is too late. (6)
Technology/Evolution/Kelly: Both allegedly wanted the same thing, because Technology is only evolution by other means. He notes that "with small differences, the evolution of Technium- the organism of ideas - mimics the evolution of genetic organisms". (7)


1. Gordon Crovitz, “Is Technology Good or Bad? Yes,” Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2010, http:// online.wsj.com/ article/ SB10001424052748703579804575441461191438330. html.
2. Nick Bilton, I Live in the Future and Here’s How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted (New York: Random House Digital, 2010), 216.
3. Parag Khanna and Ayesha Khanna, Hybrid Reality: Thriving in the Emerging Human-Technology Civilization (New York: TED Conferences, 2012).
4. Langdon Winner, Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978).
5. Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, Kindle ed. (New York: Penguin Books, 2011).
6. ibid. p.187
7. ibid. p. 44

Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014

Thinking Postman Kevin Kelly, What Technology Wants, New York, 2011 I 2809
Thinking/Innovation/Postman/Kelly: Postman calls it Frankenstein's syndrome when we find out, "after a new machine has been built - always to our surprise - that it has its own ideas; that it is not only able to change our habits, but also (...) our habits of thought." (1)

1. Neil Postman. (1994) The Disappearance of Childhood. New York: Vintage Books, p. 24.

SocPost I
Neil Postman
The Disappearance of Childhood New York 1994

Wikipedia Kelly Morozov I 30
Wikipedia/Kevin Kelly/Morozov: "The bureaucracy of Wikipedia is relatively small to be invisible" (1), the technology expert Kevin Kelly announces and confesses that "much of what I believed in human nature and the nature of knowledge was inverted by Wikipedia". Kelly writes that "everything I knew about the structure of information convinced me that knowledge wouldn't come spontaneously from data without a lot of energy and intelligence that is consciously designed to transform it" (2). MorozovVsKelly: But there is no reason not to believe that nowadays. As it turns out, Wikipedia has a huge - not small - bureaucracy; its rules cover the most arcane ((s) obscure) topics.

1. Kevin Kelly, “The Collaborative Community,” in What Have You Changed Your Mind About?: Today’s Leading Minds Rethink Everything, ed. John Brockman (New York: HarperCollins, 2009), 177.
2. ibid. 176

Kelly I
Kevin Kelly
What Technology Wants New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014