|Classes: In logic, a class is a collection of objects that share a common characteristic or property. Statements about classes can be expressed using logical symbols, such as "∈" for membership and "⊆" for subset. Identity of classes is provided by same elements (extension) - or identity of properties by the same predicates (intension). See also Sets, Set theory, Subsets, Element relation. - B. Classes in political theory refer to societal groups sharing economic interests, often defined by their relationship to production and resources. See also Society, Conflicts._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Jean Piaget on Classes - Dictionary of Arguments
Slater I 58
Mathematics/sets/classes/subclasses/counting/children/development/Piaget: In a typical investigation of this capacity, Piaget might present children with a collection of seven toy oaks, and three toy pines, and ask the children to count each type of tree. Then he would ask the child if there were more oaks than pines, and the child would answer correctly. Then came the crucial question: “Are there more oaks or more trees? Surprisingly, children under eight years old typically say that there are more oaks than trees! Piaget interpreted this result as indicating that children at this age are unable to fully understand the logic of class inclusion.
VsPiaget: However, as soon as one introduces small variations in the task (such as varying the relative size of the subsets, using more than two subsets, using other terms for the superset – i.e., “forest” rather than “trees” – then the age at which most children can pass the task varies widely, from six years old to ten years old. >Method/Piaget.
Cf. >Development stages, >Understanding/Psychology.
David Klahr, ”Revisiting Piaget. A Perspective from Studies of Children’s Problem-solving Abilities”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Psychology Of The Child 2nd Edition 1969
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012