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Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Stages of Development Piaget Upton I 16
Stages of development/Piaget/Upton: 1. Sensorimotor (0 to 2 years): Begins to make use of imitation, memory and thought. Begins to recognise that objects do not cease to exist when they are not in view.
Moves from reflex actions to goal-directed activity.
2. Preoperational (2 to 7 years): Gradually develops use of symbols, including language.
Able to think operations through logically in one direction.
Has difficulties seeing another person’s point of view.
3. Concrete operational (7 to 11 years): Able to solve concrete problems.
Understands some mathematical operations such as classification and seriation.
4. Formal operational (11 to adult): Able to solve abstract problems in a logical fashion.
Becomes more scientific in thinking. Develops concerns about social issues and identity.

VsPiaget: Some of the details of these stage theories have been criticised and the evidence now suggests that he underestimated children’s abilities.
>Psychologial theories on development stages, >Cognitive development/Piaget, >Learning/Piaget, >Knowledge/Piaget.

Piag I
J. Piaget
The Psychology Of The Child 2nd Edition 1969

Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011
Stages of Development Rousseau Höffe I 282
Development/Stages of development/Education/Rousseau/Höffe: Rousseau makes the adolescent go through a process that leads from natural independence and moral indifference, through self-love (amour de soi) with the passions, to the beginning of a moral person, the virtuous human in the state of natural freedom(1). He divides this process into four phases: (1) In the "Age of Nature" (2 to 12 years) the title character, Emile, grows into a "magnificent animal" whose body and senses are formed by selected action situations.
(2) At the "Age of Power" (12 to 15 years) he acquires manual skills and practical intelligence; he learns a carpentry trade but no factual knowledge. His only reading is Daniel Defoe's novel about the adventures of a Robinson Crusoe who is lost on an uninhabited island.
(3) In the course of moral and religious education, between the ages of 15 and 20, Émile's self-love turns into charity, and a religious feeling emerges from the observation of nature.
Höffe I 283
(4) In (...) the "Education for Love" (20 to 25 years), Émile(1) meets a young woman, Sophie, whom he marries only after a trip to Europe for political education. Development/Education/Pedagogy/Rousseau/Höffe: (...) above all with the basic idea, the inherent right of childhood (...) Rousseau's Emile initiated a revolution in pedagogy. >Education/Rousseau, >Human/Rousseau.

1. Rousseau, Emile, or on Education (Émile ou De l’éducation), 1762

Rousseau I
J. J. Rousseau
Les Confessions, 1765-1770, publ. 1782-1789
German Edition:
The Confessions 1953

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016
Stages of Development Freud Upton I 12
Stages of Development/Freud/Upton: five stages of psychosexual development: 1. Oral (birth to 1 year): An infant’s primary interaction with the world is through the mouth. If the need (e.g. for eating) is not met, the child may develop an oral fixation like fingernail biting or overeating.
2. Anal (1 to 3 years): Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. Toilet training is a primary issue with children and parents. Too much pressure can result in an excessive need for order or cleanliness later in life, while too little pressure from parents can lead to messy or destructive behaviour later in life.
3. Phallic (3 to 6 years): Freud suggested that the primary focus of the id’s energy is on the genitals. boys experience an Oedipal complex and girls experience and Electra complex, both of which are an attraction to the opposite sex parent. To cope with this conflict, children adopt the values and characteristics of the same-sex parent, thus forming the superego.
Upton I 13
4. Latent (6 to 11 years): the superego continues to develop, while the id’s energies are suppressed. Children develop social skills, values and relationships with peers and adults outside the family. 5. Genital (11 to 18 years): The onset of puberty causes the libido to become active once again. During this stage, people develop a strong interest in the opposite sex.
>Stages of Development/Erikson.
Interaction/Freud: Freud’s model is an interactionist one, in which development is determined by both biology and the environment.
VsFeud: concepts such as the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested scientifically.

Freud I
S. Freud
Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse Hamburg 2011

Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011
Stages of Development Vygotsky Upton I 16
Stages of Development/Vygotsky: Our knowledge and understanding of the world is (…) constructed in a social context, not, as Piaget thought, by children acting on the environment alone. Vygotsky also argued that the child follows the adult’s example at first, gradually developing the ability to do tasks without help. He called the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do alone the zone of proximal development (ZPD). >Understanding, >Learning, >J. Piaget, >Developmental psychology.

Vygotsky I
L. S. Vygotsky
Thought and Language Cambridge, MA 1986

Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011
Stages of Development Erikson Upton I 14
Stages of development/Erikson/Upton: EriksonVsFreud: thesis: development continued across the lifespan, rather than our childhood experiences determining our adult psychological health. Eight stages of development from infancy to late adulthood, the “Eight Ages of Man” (Erikson 1963(1): 1. Infancy; 2. Early childhood; 3.Preschool; 4. School age; 5.Adolescence; 6. Young adulthood; 7. Middle adulthood; 8. Maturity.
In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. As with Freud’s theory, the challenges of stages not successfully completed are likely to reappear as problems in the future.
>Psychological development, >Adulthood, >School entry, >Adolescence, >S. Freud.

1. Erikson, EH (1963) Childhood and Society (2nd edn). New York: Norton.

Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011
Stages of Development Levinson Upton I 145
Stages of development/Levinson/Upton: According to Levinson (1986(1). 1996(2)), the lifespan can be divided into four seasons: pre-adulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood- Each season or era lasts 20-25 years and has a distinct character. Thus, the transition between eras requires a basic change in the character of a person’s life. This transition may take between three and six years to complete. Within the broad eras are periods of development, each of which is characterized by a set of tasks.
(…) in the early adult transition period the two primary tasks are to move out of the pre-adult world and to make a preliminary step into the adult world. A major theme throughout the various periods is the existence of ‘the dream’ - a vision of life’s goals. Levinson proposed that adults go through a repeated process of building a life structure, then assessing and altering it during transition periods.
Levinson Thesis: the transition from ages 40-45 is an especially significant time of life - a time of midlife crisis when a person questions his or her entire life structure, raising unsettling questions about where they have been and where they are heading. Levinson based his theory on a series of in-depth interviews and characterized 80 per cent of the men he studied as experiencing intense inner struggles and disturbing realizations in their early forties.
Women: women, however, experience significant crisis during the transition at age 30, as well as in the transition to middle age. >Stages of development/Erikson, >Method/Levinson, >Midlife Crisis/Levinson.
Upton I 147
Levinson thesis: according to Levinson, an individual’s life structure is shaped by the social and physical environment. Many individuals’ life structures primarily involve family and work, although other variables such as religion, race and economic status may also be important.

1. Levinson, DJ (1986) The Seasons of a Man’s Life. New York: Alfred Knopf.
2. Levinson, DJ (1996) The Seasons of a Woman’s Life. New York Alfred Knopf.

Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011

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