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Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Developmental Psychology on Causality - Dictionary of Arguments

Corr I 171
Causality/developmental psychology/Ackerman: One of the (…) issues to address in terms of the relations between personality traits and intelligence is the direction of causality. Correlational analyses, per se, such as the vast majority of the data reviewed here, do not allow one to pinpoint whether positive aspects of personality have positive influences on intellectual abilities (or negative aspects of personality have negative influences on intellectual abilities), whether high or low intellectual abilities lead to more positive or negative personality patterns, or whether some other variable or variables are responsible for the co-variation of personality traits and intellectual abilities.
Some developmental theories (and the few longitudinal studies) provide some theoretical basis for particular patterns of personality (e.g., high levels of Test Anxiety leading to avoidance of situations that might involve evaluation apprehension) leading to lower intellectual abilities over long-term development (see e.g., Sarason 1960)(1).
Other theories of adult intellectual development (e.g., Ackerman 1996)(2) suggest that individuals will gravitate toward acquisition of knowledge and skills in domains that are most consonant with their personality patterns and a set of consistent vocational interests (e.g., individuals high on TIE (typical intellectual engagement, see >Intelligence/psychological theories) tending to acquire more general knowledge about the world than individuals low on TIE.

1. Sarason, I. G. 1960. Empirical findings and theoretical problems in the use of anxiety scales, Psychological Bulletin 57: 403–15
2. Ackerman, P. L.1996. A theory of adult intellectual development: process, personality, interests, and knowledge, Intelligence 22: 229–59

Phillip L. Ackerman, “Personality and intelligence”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Developmental Psychology
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-08-01
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