|Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
John Locke on Language - Dictionary of Arguments
Black II 130
Language/Locke/Black: to transmit thoughts - (>ideas).
Euchner I 33
Language/Locke: 1. recording - 2. communication of thoughts - 3. ease and speed of communication. - Language also is a prerequisite for society.
Euchner I 170
Language/Locke/Euchner: today: Locke fails to recognize the irreducible linguistic basics of empirical perception - but the correction has already been created: to include also abstract and general ideas among the empirically given, of which each reconstruction of knowledge must start.
Arndt II 181
Language/knowledge/LockeVsPascal/VsPort Royal/Arndt: 1. no necessary relations between concepts - 2. It is not clear how their content determination leads to mind independent objects - Language/Descartes/Pascal: subsequent codifying of objects - Locke: actual constitution of objects.
linguistic expression/Locke: "nodes" in which ideas, summarized in the mind, find their stable expression - we must refrain from words and look at meanings - but the ideas are something almost finished - Arndt: problem: then indicators more representative than synthetically - words: signify directly the idea, objects only indirectly.
ideas/meaning/Locke: analysis of ideas identical to the analysis of the meanings - language: not only a means of communication but also of knowledge - clarity/LockeVsDescartes: in his view bound to naming. - Presupposes the possibility of clear signification.
II 199 Language: is signifier at the same time and presupposes objectivity.
Language/Locke: is already finished: no one creates the abstract idea "fame" before he has heard the name - so independence of the mixed modes of the existence of the signified - thus one can understand names before they were applied to existing things (!) - E.g. so punishments can be established for not yet committed acts - punch line: dependence on community is result of the independence of the existence of the signified - translation: problem: nominal essence: change from community to community - language ultimately relates to particular therefore we learn name first.
Saussure I 34
Language/Locke: These words are signs of ideas in consciousness - ideas in turn are signs for objects outside of consciousness._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994
Locke zur Einführung Hamburg 1996
Grundprobleme der großen Philosophen - Neuzeit I, J. Speck (Hg), Göttingen 1997