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Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

John Locke on Language - Dictionary of Arguments

Black II 130
Language/Locke/Black: to transmit thoughts - (>ideas
Euchner I 33
1. recording
2. communication of thoughts
3. ease and speed of communication.
Language also is a prerequisite for society.
>Communication, >Society.
Euchner I 170
Language/Locke/Euchner: today: Locke fails to recognize the irreducible linguistic basics of empirical perception - but the correction has already been created: to include also abstract and general ideas among the empirically given, of which each reconstruction of knowledge must start.
>Idea/Locke, >Perception/Locke, >Perception/today's theories, >Reality/today's theories, >Language/today's theories.
Arndt II 181
Language/knowledge/LockeVsPascal/VsPort Royal/Arndt:
1. no necessary relations between concepts
2. It is not clear how their content determination leads to mind independent objects.
Language/Descartes/Pascal: subsequent codifying of objects.
Locke: actual constitution of objects.
II 183
Linguistic expression/Locke: "nodes" in which ideas, summarized in the mind, find their stable expression. We must refrain from words and look at meanings. - But the ideas are something almost finished.
Arndt: problem: then indicators more representative than synthetically.
Words: signify directly the idea, objects only indirectly.
II 188
Ideas/meaning/Locke: analysis of ideas identical to the analysis of the meanings - language: not only a means of communication but also of knowledge.
Clarity/LockeVsDescartes: in his view bound to naming.
Presupposes the possibility of clear signification.
II 199
Language: is signifier at the same time and presupposes objectivity.
II 206
Language/Locke: is already finished: no one creates the abstract idea "fame" before he has heard the name. - So independence of the mixed modes of the existence of the signified - thus one can understand names before they were applied to existing things (!)
E.g. So punishments can be established for not yet committed acts.
Punch line: dependence on community is result of the independence of the existence of the signified.
Translation: problem: nominal essence: change from community to community.
Language ultimately relates to particular therefore we learn name first.
>Translation, >Names.
Saussure I 34
Language/Locke: These words are signs of ideas in consciousness - ideas in turn are signs for objects outside of consciousness.
>Signs, >Words.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

J. Locke
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994

Loc I
W. Euchner
Locke zur Einführung Hamburg 1996

Loc II
H.W. Arndt
Grundprobleme der großen Philosophen - Neuzeit I, J. Speck (Hg), Göttingen 1997

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