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Multiculturalism: Multiculturalism is a societal model that recognizes the importance of cultural diversity and seeks to promote equality and respect for all cultures within a society. See also Culture, Cultural values, Cultural relativism, Calture tradition.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Liberalism on Multiculturalism - Dictionary of Arguments

Gaus I 256
Multiculturalism/Liberalism/Kukathas: (...) divisions exist not only between liberal defenders of multiculturalism and their critics but also among liberal theorists themselves. Two major interrelated issues have shaped debate among them: the extent to which diversity ought to
be tolerated by liberals when minorities turn out to be illiberal in character, and the principled basis of liberal acceptance of cultural diversity.
Toleration: for some, the limits of liberal toleration are clear: toleration is not extended to illiberal minorities. For Kymlicka, for example, liberalism endorses group-differentiated rights which provide for external protection for groups, but does not permit 'internal restrictions': groups may not curb the basic civil rights of their members. >Minority rights/Kymlicka
, >Group rights/Political philosophy, >Human rights/Kymlicka.
Indeed, for Kymlicka (1989(1); 1995a(2)) what liberalism protects, above all, is the individual's
capacity for autonomous choice; culture is important because it is the context within which indivi-
duals learn how to choose, but its value diminishes when it ceases to enable individuals to choose their lives for themselves.
Autonomy: a number of other liberal theorists concur with Kymlicka in this matter, arguing that liberalism protects autonomy, and that cultures that do not value or promote autonomy are less deserving of toleration or, at best, should be tolerated on pragmatic rather than principled grounds (Fitzmaurice, 1993(3); Levy, 1997(4); Gill 2001(5)) (...).
VsAutonomy: Other liberals, however, are less enamoured of autonomy. Some, like Jeff Spinner-Halev, consider autonomy to be valuable, but are critical of those who over emphasize its importance or define autonomy so strictly that many ways of living do not qualify (Spinner-Halev, 2000(6): 62—7; Spinner, 1994(7)).
Toleration: others, however, have been more critical still of autonomy, suggesting that toleration or respect for diversity are much more important considerations for liberals (Galston, 1995(8); Kukathas, 1992a(9); 1999(10); 2003a(11)) for an analysis of this liberal divide see Levy, 2003)(15).
Toleration/Kukathas: Kukathas (1997(12); 2001(13); 2003b(14)), in particular, has argued vigorously that toleration is so important a liberal virtue that a liberal order will tolerate a diversity of cultures even if some of them are highly illiberal.

1. Kymlicka, Will (1989) Liberalism, Community and Cultuæ. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Kymlicka, Will (1995a) Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
3. Fitzmaurice, Deborah (1993) 'Autonomy as a good: liberalism, autonomy and toleration'. Journal of Political Philosophy, 1 1-16.
4. Levy, Jacob (1997) 'Classifying cultural rights'. In Will Kymlicka and Ian Shapiro, eds, Ethnicity and Gmup Rights: NOMOS XXXIX New York: New York University Press, 22—66.
5. Gill, Emily R. (2001) Becoming Free: Autonomy and Diversity in the Liberal Polity. Lawrence, KS:
University of Kansas Press.
6. Spinner-Halev, Jeff (2000) Surviving Diversity: Religion and Democratic Citizenship. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
7. Spinner, Jeff (1994) The Boundaries of Citizenship: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality in the Liberal State. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
8. Galston, William (1995) 'Two concepts of Liberalism', Ethics, 105(3): 516-34.
9. Kukathas, Chandran (1992a) 'Are there any cultural rights?' Political Theory, 20 105-39.
10. Kukathas, Chandran (1999) 'Tolerating the intolerable'. Papers on Parliament, 33: 67-81.
11. Kukathas, Chandran (2003a) 'Responsibility for past injustice: how to shift the burden'. Politics, Philosophy and Economics, 2 (2): 165-88.
12. Kukathas, Chandran (1997) 'Cultural toleration'. In Will Kymlicka and Ian Shapiro, eds, Ethnicity and Group Rights: NOMOS XXXIX New York: New York University Press, 69—104.
13. Kukathas, Chandran (2001) 'Is Feminism Bad for Multiculturalism?' Public Affairs Quarterly, 15 (2): 83-98.
14. Kukathas, Chandran (2003b) The Liberal Archipelago: A Theory of Diversity and Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
15.Levy, Jacob (2003) 'Liberalism's divide, after socialism and before'. Social Philosophy and Policy, 20 (l): 278-97.

Kukathas, Chandran 2004. „Nationalism and Multiculturalism“. In: Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. SAGE Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Gaus I
Gerald F. Gaus
Chandran Kukathas
Handbook of Political Theory London 2004

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