Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Morals: morals refers to a more or less coded set of rules, action maxims, duties and prohibitions within a society or group. Most of these rules are unconsciously internalized among the members of the society or group. Their justification and the possible assessment of actions are reflected in ethics and meta ethics. See also values, norms, rights, ethics.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Friedrich Nietzsche on Morals - Dictionary of Arguments

Ries II 46
Moral/Nietzsche: social egoism. The "main rule" in relation to the crisis of value judgments: There are only moral interpretations of phenomena, but no moral phenomena "in themselves".
Ries II 52
Moral/Nietzsche: drove economic forms of the animal kingdom: fear and power. Moral as a functional principle of atavistic impulses.
Ries II 53
Moral/Nietzsche: the actual Circe of philosophy. Seduction through the thought of a "truly existing", the "beyond" the world of experience determined by death, suffering and powerlessness.
Ries II 79
Moral/Christianity/On the Genealogy of Morality/Nietzsche: all Christian moral is an instrument of falsification and subjugation of original nature by what is not nature - God, reason, conscience.
Ries II 80
Moral/NietzscheVsSocial Nature/On the Genealogy of Morality/Nietzsche: the human is a social "animal", which in the course of the cruel history becomes a social being. Conscience: Remembrance of forced acts. (> Freud: Conscience: idiosyncratic memory).
Ries II 101
Moral/Mandeville: (1670 - 1733) already impulsive psychological explanation of the moral concepts.
Ries II 103
Moral/Nietzsche: there are no moral phenomena "in themselves", always only moral interpretations of these phenomena. (see above).
Moral as a model for explaining the world: traceability of the unknown back to the familiar. Social traffic rules. Displacement and sublimation as the two constitutive factors.
Nietzsche understood his criticism of morality itself as a "high level" of morality.
Danto III 160
Moral/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche wants to tear us away from the prevailing habits of judging and thinking, let us see these attitudes from the outside, and let us recognize moral as 'a problem'. (F. Nietzsche: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft, KGW V. 2, p. 232.)
Danto III 161
Nietzsche deals in particular with our belief in morality, i. e. a belief of the 2nd order over dogmas.
Explanation/Nietzsche. It is the question of how far [a judgement] is life-promoting, life-preserving, species-preserving, maybe even species-breeding' (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2, p. 12).
Danto III 162
NietzscheVsTradition: the old philosophers never questioned their identity according to Nietzsche.
Danto III 163
Nietzsche tries to establish a science of morality.
Danto III 165
According to Nietzsche, there are no 'moral phenomena' but only a moral interpretation of phenomena. (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2, p. 92).
((s) See also Gilbert Harman: Ethics/Harman).
There are no moral facts either. (F. Nietzsche: Götzen-Dämmerung, KGW VI, 3 p. 92).
Ethics/Moral/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche does not require us to abondon our moral beliefs, but only to abandon our meta-ethical beliefs.
Danto III 166
This gives us the opportunity to choose from a range of morals.
Danto III 191
Moral/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche distinguishes between "masters's morality" and "slave morality". (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2, p. 218).
Danto III 192
Master/Nietzsche: Their existence depends on how far they are useful to the tribe, which in turn is a question of external circumstances.
The supposedly noble ones need not have changed in order to be distinguished and slandered another time: everything depends on the possibilities offered to them to live out those emotions that shape their character and determine their superiority.
Slaves/Nietzsche: The average members of the tribe, for whom those fight to threaten them in peacetime, are called 'slaves' by Nietzsche. (F. Nietzsche: Menschliches, Allzumenschliches, KGW IV, 2 p. 81f).
Danto III 200
Resentment/slave morality: the slave fears not only the malice of the master and digs it up: he resents (resentment) the strength of the master as well as his own relative powerlessness.
Danto III 201
He cannot act out his hostility on the paths open to the aristocrats. Slave's strategy: to get the master to accept the slave's scoreboard and to judge himself from the slave's perspective. Eventually, the master becomes evil in his own eyes.
Danto III 204
Slave moral/Nietzsche/Danto: while it is logical for Hobbes that there is no injustice in the natural state, because injustice presupposes a social juridical structure, the slave morality by Nietzsche requires that there are evil persons, or at least something like that, which can be labelled negatively with reference to the "good". (Cf. F. Nietzsche: Zur Genealogie der Moral, VI. 2, p. 284f)
Danto III 205
The slave actually demands nothing less than that everyone should be equal to everyone and that everyone should align from the outside. The moral of everyone is the moral of the group to which they belong.
Master's moral/Nietzsche/Danto: on the other hand, the master's moral is determined independently of any external criterion, and the aristocrat does not intend to align itself with others. (ibid., p: 284).
Danto III 217
On the top rung of the leader of civilization is not the blonde beast, but the ascetic. He is a self-disciplined person who differs from others in that he does not exercise his power over others, but over himself. The self-controlling ascetic is an avatar (originally Avatara), a persona of the beast at the lower end of the scale. Religion is responsible for the higher development, after all, the ascetic is the aristocrat in the tamed state that is so feared by the slaves. He is what they have produced in the course of their resentment.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014

Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-06-30
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